Document Detail

Microgravity: the immune response and bone.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16313354     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Exposure to microgravity during space flight affects almost all human physiological systems. The affected systems that are of key importance to human space exploration are the musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, and cardiovascular systems. However, alterations in the immune and endocrine functions have also been described. Bone loss has been shown to be site specific, predominantly in the weight-bearing regions of the legs and lumbar spine. This phenomenon has been attributed to a reduction in bone formation resulting from a decrease in osteoblastic function and an increase in osteoclastic resorption. In order to examine the effects of microgravity on cellular function here on earth, several ground-based studies have been performed using different systems to model microgravity. Our studies have shown that modeled microgravity (MMG) inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) while increasing their adipogenic differentiation. Here, we discuss the potential molecular mechanisms that could be altered in microgravity. In particular, we examine the role of RhoA kinase in maintaining the formation of actin stress fibers and the expression of nitric oxide synthase under MMG conditions. These proposed mechanisms, although only examined in hMSCs, could be part of a global response to microgravity that ultimately alters human physiology.
Majd Zayzafoon; Valerie E Meyers; Jay M McDonald
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunological reviews     Volume:  208     ISSN:  0105-2896     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2005 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-11-29     Completed Date:  2006-01-04     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7702118     Medline TA:  Immunol Rev     Country:  Denmark    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  267-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233-7331, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Bone and Bones / physiology*
Cytoskeleton / physiology
Immune System / physiology*
Integrins / physiology
Mesenchymal Stem Cells / physiology
Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
Osteoporosis / etiology
Signal Transduction
Space Flight
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Integrins; 10102-43-9/Nitric Oxide

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