Document Detail


Microbial exposure of rural school children, as assessed by levels of N-acetyl-muramic acid in mattress dust, and its association with respiratory health.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15131567     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with a decreased prevalence of atopic sensitization and symptoms. Yet endotoxin represents only a part of the indoor microbial exposure. Muramic acid, a constituent of peptidoglycan, is present in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in the environment and may therefore serve as an additional marker of microbial exposure. OBJECTIVE: To study the factors determining the level of indoor exposure to muramic acid/peptidoglycan, as well as its potential association with respiratory health. METHODS: In 553 farm and nonfarm school children from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany, mattress dust muramic acid concentrations were determined, and health was assessed by using IgE measurements and questionnaire information. RESULTS: The muramic acid concentration was found to be significantly higher in dust from farm children's mattresses than in dust from nonfarm children's mattresses (157 vs 131 ng/mg). Children with higher mattress dust muramic acid concentrations had a significantly lower prevalence of wheezing (odds ratio of highest vs lowest tertile of muramic acid concentration, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), regardless of farming status and endotoxin exposure. The association for asthma was similar, and no association was found with atopic sensitization. CONCLUSION: Next to endotoxin, muramic acid provides us with an independent marker of microbial exposure. Unlike endotoxin, muramic acid was inversely associated with wheezing rather than with atopic sensitization.
Authors:
Robert Theodoor van Strien; Regina Engel; Otto Holst; Albrecht Bufe; Waltraud Eder; Marco Waser; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer; Josef Riedler; Dennis Nowak; Erika von Mutius;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology     Volume:  113     ISSN:  0091-6749     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.     Publication Date:  2004 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-05-07     Completed Date:  2004-06-17     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1275002     Medline TA:  J Allergy Clin Immunol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  860-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
University Children's Hospital, Lindwurmstrasse 4, 80337 Munich, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Asthma / etiology
Austria
Bedding and Linens / adverse effects*,  microbiology*
Child
Dust / analysis
Endotoxins / analysis
Environmental Microbiology*
Germany
Humans
Immunoglobulin E / blood
Muramic Acids / analysis*
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / etiology
Rural Health*
Switzerland
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dust; 0/Endotoxins; 0/Muramic Acids; 1856-93-5/N-acetylmuramic acid; 37341-29-0/Immunoglobulin E

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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