Document Detail

Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17467038     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis.
Asier Gómez-Olivencia; José Miguel Carretero; Juan Luis Arsuaga; Laura Rodríguez-García; Rebeca García-González; Ignacio Martínez
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2007-04-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of human evolution     Volume:  53     ISSN:  0047-2484     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Hum. Evol.     Publication Date:  2007 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-06-08     Completed Date:  2007-09-13     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0337330     Medline TA:  J Hum Evol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  6-25     Citation Subset:  IM    
Laboratorio de Evolución Humana, Dpto. de Ciencias Históricas y Geografía, Universidad de Burgos, Plaza Misael de Bañuelos s/n, 09001 Burgos, Spain.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Axis / anatomy & histology*,  pathology
Cervical Atlas / anatomy & histology*
Hominidae / anatomy & histology*
Sex Determination (Analysis)

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