Document Detail

Methods for quantification of exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke: focus on developmental toxicology.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19125149     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke.
Ana Florescu; Roberta Ferrence; Tom Einarson; Peter Selby; Offie Soldin; Gideon Koren
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Therapeutic drug monitoring     Volume:  31     ISSN:  1536-3694     ISO Abbreviation:  Ther Drug Monit     Publication Date:  2009 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-01-21     Completed Date:  2009-03-12     Revised Date:  2013-06-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7909660     Medline TA:  Ther Drug Monit     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  14-30     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Research, The CAMH Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / analysis
Body Fluids / chemistry
Child Development / drug effects*
Child, Preschool
Cotinine / analysis,  blood
Developmental Disabilities / chemically induced*
Hair / chemistry
Infant, Newborn
Nicotine / adverse effects,  blood
Nicotinic Agonists / adverse effects,  blood
Reproduction / drug effects
Smoking / adverse effects*
Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*
Young Adult
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/Nicotinic Agonists; 0/Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 486-56-6/Cotinine; 54-11-5/Nicotine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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