Document Detail


Methods for preservation and extension of shelf life.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8913809     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
There is potential for spoilage of all foods at some rate or other following harvest, slaughter or manufacture and spoilage may occur at any of the stages between the acquisition of raw materials and the eventual consumption of a food product. These stages include processing, packaging, distribution, retail display, transport, storage and use by the consumer. They are under varying degrees of control that aim to deliver a satisfactory shelf life, to ensure that the finally-consumed product is of high quality and to ensure that it is safe. Spoilage may be caused by a wide range of reactions including some that are essentially physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of microbiological spoilage are preventable to a large degree by a wide range of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or inhibiting microbial growth (e.g., chilling, freezing, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting and adding preservatives). A smaller number of techniques act by inactivating microorganisms (e.g., pasteurization, sterilization and irradiation). Additional techniques restrict the access of microorganisms to products (e.g., aseptic processing and packaging. A major trend is that new and emerging preservation techniques which are coming into use or are under development include more that act by inactivation (e.g., ultrahigh pressure, electroporation, manothermosonication and addition of bacteriolytic enzymes). A further trend is towards the use of procedures that deliver products that are less heavily preserved, have higher quality, are more natural, freer from additives and nutritionally healthier. Less severe preservation procedures are therefore being developed that make use of preservative factors in combinations to deliver (a) less damage to product quality (hurdle technologies); (b) new methods of heating that are better controlled and therefore deliver milder heat to products; (c) cook-chill combinations that deliver longer high quality shelf lives: (d) modified atmosphere packaging to retain quality longer; and (e) use of antimicrobial systems that are more natural. Many of the existing and emerging preservation techniques act by interfering with the homeostatic mechanisms that microorganisms have evolved in order to survive extreme environmental stresses.
Authors:
G W Gould
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of food microbiology     Volume:  33     ISSN:  0168-1605     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Food Microbiol.     Publication Date:  1996 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-01-02     Completed Date:  1997-01-02     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8412849     Medline TA:  Int J Food Microbiol     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  51-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Food Microbiology
Food Packaging
Food Preservation*
Heating
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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