Document Detail

Methodologies for estimating cumulative human exposures to current-use pyrethroid pesticides.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20407476     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
We estimated cumulative residential pesticide exposures for a group of nine young children (4-6 years) using three different methodologies developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and compared the results with estimates derived from measured urinary metabolite concentrations. The Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessment are intended to provide a screening-level assessment to estimate exposure for regulatory purposes. Nonetheless, dermal exposure estimates were typically lower from the SOP (1-1300 nmol/day) than from SHEDS (5-19,000 nmol/day) or any of the four different approaches for estimating dermal exposure using the Draft Protocol for Measuring Children's Non-Occupational Exposure to Pesticides by all Relevant Pathways (Draft Protocol) (5-11,000 nmol/day). Indirect ingestion exposure estimates ranged from 0.02 to 21.5 nmol/day for the SOP, 0.5 to 188 nmol/day for SHEDS, and 0 to 3.38 nmol/day for the Draft Protocol. Estimates of total absorbed dose ranged from 3 to 37 nmol/day for the SOPs, 0.5 to 100 nmol/day for SHEDS, and 1 to 216 nmol/day for the Draft Protocol. The concentrations estimated using the Draft Protocol and SHEDS showed strong, positive relationships with the 3-phenoxybenzoic acid metabolite measured in the children's urine samples (R(2)=0.90 for the Draft Protocol; R(2)=0.92 for SHEDS). Analysis of different approaches for estimating dermal exposure suggested that the approach assuming an even distribution of pesticide residue on the child's body was most reasonable. With all three methodologies providing reasonable estimates of exposure and dose, selection should depend on the available data and the objectives of the analysis. Further research would be useful to better understand how best to estimate dermal exposure for children and what exposure factors (e.g., activities, transfer coefficients, measurement techniques) are most relevant in making dermal exposure estimates.
Nicolle S Tulve; Peter P Egeghy; Roy C Fortmann; Jianping Xue; Jeff Evans; Donald A Whitaker; Carry W Croghan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-04-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology     Volume:  21     ISSN:  1559-064X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-04-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101262796     Medline TA:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  317-27     Citation Subset:  IM    
Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, US EPA, MD-E205-04, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
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