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Metabolomic profiling of the flower bud and rachis of Tussilago farfara with antitussive and expectorant effects on mice.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22210102     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. is widely used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis and asthmatic disorders in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, due to the increasing demands, adulteration with rachis is frequently encountered in the marketplace. No report demonstrated the chemical and pharmacological differences between flower bud and rachis before. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the antitussive and expectorant properties of flower bud and rachis. To identify polar and apolar metabolites in flower bud and rachis and by using multivariate data analysis investigate the metabolic differences between flower bud and rachis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extracts were orally administrated to mice. Ammonia induced mice coughing model was used to evaluate the antitussive activity. The expectorant activity was evaluated by volume of phenol red in mice's tracheas. Metabolites were identified directly from the crude extracts through 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. A metabolic profiling carried out by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis was applied to crude extracts from flower bud and rachis. RESULTS: Flower bud significantly lengthened the latent period of cough, decreased cough frequency caused by ammonia and enhanced tracheal phenol red output in expectorant evaluation. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded good separation between flower bud and rachis, and corresponding loading plot showed that the phenolic compounds, organic acid, sugar, amino acid, terpene and sterol contributed to the discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide pharmacological and chemical evidence that only flower bud can be used as the antitussive and expectorant herbal drug. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rutin in flower buds may be related with the antitussive and expectorant effects of Flos Farfara. To guarantee the clinical effect, rachis should be picked out before use.
Authors:
Zhen-Yu Li; Hai-Juan Zhi; Shui-Yu Xue; Hai-Feng Sun; Fu-Sheng Zhang; Jin-Ping Jia; Jie Xing; Li-Zeng Zhang; Xue-Mei Qin
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-12-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of ethnopharmacology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1872-7573     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7903310     Medline TA:  J Ethnopharmacol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Affiliation:
Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shanxi University, No. 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, People's Republic of China.
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