Document Detail

Metabolic reduction of chromium as a threshold mechanism limiting its in vivo activity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3043658     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Various mechanisms tend to reduce hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI] in the organism, both outside and inside target cells. A reducing activity has been demonstrated in the blood (mainly in erythrocytes), in secretions of the alimentary tract (saliva, gastric juice) and in the lumen of terminal airways (epithelial-lining fluid and alveolar macrophages). Preparations of several types of cells from various animal species--including human liver, lung parenchyma and bronchial tree cells--are capable of metabolically reducing Cr(VI) to a variable extent. This process can be ascribed to different cytoplasmic components, e.g. to mitochondria, microsomal fractions and especially to cytosolic fractions, where reduction is partly due to electron donors (e.g. glutathione) and mainly to NADPH-dependent enzyme activities, such as DT-diaphorase. Reduction is not only selectively stimulated by enzyme inducers but also, in rat lung cells, by the repeated intra-tracheal administration of Cr(VI) itself. All these reducing reactions are interpreted as detoxifying mechanisms, which constitute a threshold phenomenon in chromium carcinogenesis.
F L Petrilli; S de Flora
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Science of the total environment     Volume:  71     ISSN:  0048-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Sci. Total Environ.     Publication Date:  1988 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1988-09-16     Completed Date:  1988-09-16     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330500     Medline TA:  Sci Total Environ     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  357-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Hygiente, University of Genoa, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Carcinogens / metabolism
Chromium / metabolism*,  pharmacokinetics,  toxicity
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carcinogens; 7440-47-3/Chromium

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