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Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23035778     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
CONTENTS: Summary    1 I. Introduction    2 II. Phenolic metabolism    2 III. Lignin biosynthesis and structure    6 IV. Alternative lignin monomers for biofuel applications    8 V. Candidate alternative monolignols in biomimetic systems 14 VI. From phenolic profiling to lignomics 15 VII. Phenolic pathway engineering towards alternative monolignols 16 Acknowledgements 17 References 17 SUMMARY: Lignin, a phenolic polymer in the secondary wall, is the major cause of lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance to efficient industrial processing. From an applications perspective, it is desirable that second-generation bioenergy crops have lignin that is readily degraded by chemical pretreatments but still fulfill its biological role in plants. Because plants can tolerate large variations in lignin composition, often without apparent adverse effects, substitution of some fraction of the traditional monolignols by alternative monomers through genetic engineering is a promising strategy to tailor lignin in bioenergy crops. However, successful engineering of lignin incorporating alternative monomers requires knowledge about phenolic metabolism in plants and about the coupling properties of these alternative monomers. Here, we review the current knowledge about lignin biosynthesis and the pathways towards the main phenolic classes. In addition, the minimal requirements are defined for molecules that, upon incorporation into the lignin polymer, make the latter more susceptible to biomass pretreatment. Numerous metabolites made by plants meet these requirements, and several have already been tested as monolignol substitutes in biomimetic systems. Finally, the status of detection and identification of compounds by phenolic profiling is discussed, as phenolic profiling serves in pathway elucidation and for the detection of incorporation of alternative lignin monomers.
Authors:
Ruben Vanholme; Kris Morreel; Chiarina Darrah; Paula Oyarce; John H Grabber; John Ralph; Wout Boerjan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-4
Journal Detail:
Title:  The New phytologist     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-8137     ISO Abbreviation:  New Phytol.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-5     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9882884     Medline TA:  New Phytol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Gent, Belgium; Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Gent, Belgium.
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