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Metabolic endotoxaemia: is it more than just a gut feeling?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23298961     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the evidence linking gut bacteria, endotoxin, and its circulating levels with inflammatory induced obesity and metabolic disease (metabolic endotoxaemia).
RECENT FINDINGS: Gut flora analyses have allowed gut microbiota signatures (GMS) to be observed in animal studies of obesity/metabolic disease. In these studies, specific GMS result in a change in obesity and metabolic disease state whereas in humans, analysis remains unclear. Serum studies, examining metabolic endotoxaemia as a biomarker, appear to link long-term cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through activation of inflammatory pathways. More recent studies note the importance of diet, which shows the dramatic rise in endotoxin following acute or long-term high-fat diet, with the effects exacerbated in T2DM.
SUMMARY: Gut flora appears to act as an important determinant in the pathogenesis of inflammatory induced obesity/T2DM. Endotoxin may act as the systemic insult, impacted by a high-fat diet, which may regulate this effect, combined with an altered GMS. As such, clinical and dietary intervention to affect this process - on the gut flora, the 'leaky' mucosal membrane and endotoxin coupled lipid absorption or removal of circulating endotoxin - could reduce the progression of inflammatory induced metabolic disease.
Milan K Piya; Alison L Harte; Philip G McTernan
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in lipidology     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1473-6535     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Opin. Lipidol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-09     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9010000     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Lipidol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  78-85     Citation Subset:  IM    
aDivision of Metabolic and Vascular Health, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories bWarwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Walsgrave, Coventry, UK.
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