Document Detail

Mercaptosilane-assisted synthesis of metal clusters within zeolites and catalytic consequences of encapsulation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20536236     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
We report here a general synthetic strategy to encapsulate metal clusters within zeolites during their hydrothermal crystallization. Precursors to metal clusters are stabilized against their premature colloidal precipitation as hydroxides during zeolite crystallization using bifunctional (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane ligands. Mercapto (-SH) groups in these ligands interact with cationic metal centers, while alkoxysilane moieties form covalent Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al linkages that promote zeolite nucleation around ligated metal precursors. These protocols led to the successful encapsulation of Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, and Ag clusters within the NaA zeolite, for which small channel apertures (0.41 nm) preclude postsynthesis deposition of metal clusters. Sequential treatments in O(2) and H(2) formed small (approximately 1 nm) clusters with uniform diameter. Titration of exposed atoms with H(2) or O(2) gave metal dispersions that agree well with mean cluster sizes measured from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, consistent with accessible cluster surfaces free of mercaptosilane residues. NaA micropore apertures restrict access to encapsulated clusters by reactants based on their molecular size. The ratio of the rates of hydrogenation of ethene and isobutene is much higher on clusters encapsulated within NaA than those dispersed on SiO(2), as also found for the relative rates of methanol and isobutanol oxidation. These data confirm the high encapsulation selectivity achieved by these synthetic protocols and the ability of NaA micropores to sieve reactants based on molecular size. Containment within small micropores also protects clusters against thermal sintering and prevents poisoning of active sites by organosulfur species, thus allowing alkene hydrogenation to persist even in the presence of thiophene. The bifunctional nature and remarkable specificity of the mercapto and alkoxysilane functions for metal and zeolite precursors, respectively, render these protocols extendable to diverse metal-zeolite systems useful as shape-selective catalysts in demanding chemical environments.
Minkee Choi; Zhijie Wu; Enrique Iglesia
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Chemical Society     Volume:  132     ISSN:  1520-5126     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Am. Chem. Soc.     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-06-30     Completed Date:  2010-10-01     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503056     Medline TA:  J Am Chem Soc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  9129-37     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
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