Document Detail

The Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Enhance Cognitive Function in Older Adults.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23545598     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
IMPORTANCE The prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia are projected to rise dramatically during the next 40 years, and strategies for maintaining cognitive function with age are critically needed. Physical or mental activity alone result in relatively small, domain-specific improvements in cognitive function in older adults; combined interventions may have more global effects. OBJECTIVE To examine the combined effects of physical plus mental activity on cognitive function in older adults. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial with a factorial design. SETTING San Francisco, California. PARTICIPANTS A total of 126 inactive, community-residing older adults with cognitive complaints. INTERVENTIONS All participants engaged in home-based mental activity (1 h/d, 3 d/wk) plus class-based physical activity (1 h/d, 3 d/wk) for 12 weeks and were randomized to either mental activity intervention (MA-I; intensive computer) or mental activity control (MA-C; educational DVDs) plus exercise intervention (EX-I; aerobic) or exercise control (EX-C; stretching and toning); a 2 × 2 factorial design was used so that there were 4 groups: MA-I/EX-I, MA-I/EX-C, MA-C/EX-1, and MA-C/EX-C. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Global cognitive change based on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS Participants had a mean age of 73.4 years; 62.7% were women, and 34.9% were Hispanic or nonwhite. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. Global cognitive scores improved significantly over time (mean, 0.16 SD; P < .001) but did not differ between groups in the comparison between MA-I and MA-C (ignoring exercise, P = .17), the comparison between EX-I and EX-C (ignoring mental activity, P = .74), or across all 4 randomization groups (P = .26). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In inactive older adults with cognitive complaints, 12 weeks of physical plus mental activity was associated with significant improvements in global cognitive function with no evidence of difference between intervention and active control groups. These findings may reflect practice effects or may suggest that the amount of activity is more important than the type in this subject population. TRIAL REGISTRATION Identifier:NCT00522899.
Deborah E Barnes; Wendy Santos-Modesitt; Gina Poelke; Arthur F Kramer; Cynthia Castro; Laura E Middleton; Kristine Yaffe
Related Documents :
21497208 - Fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus: an association with reduced physical fitness.
10580878 - Contribution of nitric oxide to exercise-induced hypotension in human sympathetic dener...
23769598 - Exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity targeting motor and cognitive circuitry in parkinson'...
9815008 - Forearm norepinephrine spillover during standing, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoglycemia.
2369908 - Changes in muscle strength and speed of an unloaded movement after various training pro...
17890428 - Heart rate recovery and heart rate complexity following resistance exercise training an...
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-4-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  JAMA internal medicine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  2168-6114     ISO Abbreviation:  JAMA Intern Med     Publication Date:  2013 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-4-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101589534     Medline TA:  JAMA Intern Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-8     Citation Subset:  -    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Dispersion-cancelled biological imaging with quantum-inspired interferometry.
Next Document:  Enhancing the stability of polymer solar cells by improving the conductivity of the nanostructured M...