Document Detail

Median facial clefts in Xenopus laevis: Roles of retinoic acid signaling and homeobox genes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22405964     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The upper lip and primary palate form an essential separation between the brain, nasal structures and the oral cavity. Surprisingly little is known about the development of these structures, despite the fact that abnormalities can result in various forms of orofacial clefts. We have uncovered that retinoic acid is a critical regulator of upper lip and primary palate development in Xenopus laevis. Retinoic acid synthesis enzyme, RALDH2, and retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARγ) are expressed in complementary and partially overlapping regions of the orofacial prominences that fate mapping revealed contribute to the upper lip and primary palate. Decreased RALDH2 and RARγ result in a median cleft in the upper lip and primary palate. To further understand how retinoic acid regulates upper lip and palate morphogenesis we searched for genes downregulated in response to RARγ inhibition in orofacial tissue, and uncovered homeobox genes lhx8 and msx2. These genes are both expressed in overlapping domains with RARγ, and together their loss of function also results in a median cleft in the upper lip and primary palate. Inhibition of RARγ and decreased Lhx8/Msx2 function result in decreased cell proliferation and failure of dorsal anterior cartilages to form. These results suggest a model whereby retinoic acid signaling regulates Lhx8 and Msx2, which together direct the tissue growth and differentiation necessary for the upper lip and primary palate morphogenesis. This work has the potential to better understand the complex nature of the upper lip and primary palate development which will lead to important insights into the etiology of human orofacial clefts.
Allyson E Kennedy; Amanda J G Dickinson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-3-3
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1095-564X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-3-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372762     Medline TA:  Dev Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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