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Mechanisms of pH control in the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis: roles for ingested molecules and hormones.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21490249     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Control of the midgut pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis enables the insect's digestive system to deal with different types of diet. Phlebotomines must be able to suddenly change from a condition adequate to process a sugar diet to one required to digest blood. Prior to blood ingestion, the pH in the midgut is maintained at ∼6 via an efficient mechanism. In the abdominal midgut, alkalization to a pH of ∼8 occurs as a consequence of the loss of CO(2) from blood (CO(2) volatilization) and by a second mechanism that is not yet characterized. The present study aimed to characterize the primary stimuli, present in the blood, that are responsible for shutting down the mechanism that maintains a pH of 6 and switching on that responsible for alkalization. Our results show that any ingested protein could induce alkalization. Free amino acids, at the concentrations found in blood, were ineffective at inducing alkalization, although higher concentrations of amino acids were able to induce alkalization. Aqueous extracts of midgut tissue containing putative hormones from intestinal endocrine cells slightly alkalized the midgut lumen when applied to dissected intestines, as did hemolymph collected from blood-fed females. Serotonin, a hormone that is possibly released in the hemolymph after hematophagy commences, was ineffective at promoting alkalization. The carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme seems to be involved in alkalizing the midgut, as co-ingestion of acetazolamide (a CA inhibitor) with proteins impaired alkalization efficiency. A general model of alkalization control is presented.
Authors:
Vânia C Santos; Cássio A Nunes; Marcos H Pereira; Nelder F Gontijo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of experimental biology     Volume:  214     ISSN:  1477-9145     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Exp. Biol.     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-04-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0243705     Medline TA:  J Exp Biol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1411-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Parasitology, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil.
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