Document Detail

Mechanical protection of cardiac microcirculation during percutaneous coronary intervention of saphenous vein grafts.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15771915     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Saphenous vein bypass grafts permeability is one of the most important limitations of open heart surgery. The risks associated with surgical re-intervention are greater than those associated with the initial procedure. While native coronary arteries usually have fixed, fibrotic or calcified atherosclerotic plaques, the disease in the vein grafts contains soft material. When this material is compressed during percutaneous angioplasty, there is an unfavorable immediate outcome due to distal embolization of thrombus and plaque debris. In addition, the risk of post-procedure adverse events are higher when the grafts have a long time of implantation, due to a greater risk of branch occlusion or no-reflow at the adjacent microcirculation. The clinical consequence is a Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction that is reflected in the increased serum cardiac enzymes. It is because of this complication that the distal protection devices were developed. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the current data on the distal protection devices available now for the treatment of degenerative saphenous vein graft disease. Currently, there are two distal protection devices approved in the United States: the Guardwire Balloon and Aspiration (Export) System and the Filter Wire EX. Other devices like the Triactiv System, Angioguard XP/ECW, DOW, MedNova Cardioshield, Medtronic-AVE DPD and the E-Trap Filter are still being studied. The first observational studies showed the safety and efficacy of the approved devices. A large randomized trial initially confirmed a significant decrease of in-hospital and 30-day cardiac adverse events, mainly Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction, when angioplasty was performed with the assistance of the Guardwire System. Subsequently, another randomized study showed an equivalence between the Guardwire System and the Filter Wire EX. Distal protection devices have an acceptable performance, however, further technological improvements are warranted for a quick preparation, delivery and/or retrieval of these devices.
Jorge Bejarano
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of cardiology     Volume:  99     ISSN:  0167-5273     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2005 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-03-17     Completed Date:  2005-07-15     Revised Date:  2006-07-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8200291     Medline TA:  Int J Cardiol     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  365-72     Citation Subset:  IM    
Miami Heart Institute, Cardiovascular Laboratory, 4701 North Meridian Avenue, Suite 3303, Miami Beach, FL 33140, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary / adverse effects*
Coronary Artery Bypass
Coronary Circulation*
Coronary Disease / surgery
Graft Occlusion, Vascular / therapy*
Prostheses and Implants*
Saphenous Vein / radiography,  transplantation

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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