Document Detail


Mechanical properties of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis in wild turkeys.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21120110     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In many muscles, the tendinous structures include both an extramuscular free tendon as well as a sheet-like aponeurosis. In both free tendons and aponeuroses the collagen fascicles are oriented primarily longitudinally, along the muscle's line of action. It is generally assumed that this axis represents the direction of loading for these structures. This assumption is well founded for free tendons, but aponeuroses undergo a more complex loading regime. Unlike free tendons, aponeuroses surround a substantial portion of the muscle belly and are therefore loaded both parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to a muscle's line of action when contracting muscles bulge to maintain a constant volume. Given this biaxial loading pattern, it is critical to understand the mechanical properties of aponeuroses in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. In this study, we use uniaxial testing of isolated tissue samples from the aponeurosis of the lateral gastrocnemius of wild turkeys to determine mechanical properties of samples loaded longitudinally (along the muscle's line of action) and transversely (orthogonal to the line of action). We find that the aponeurosis has a significantly higher Young's modulus in the longitudinal than in the transverse direction. Our results also show that aponeuroses can behave as efficient springs in both the longitudinal and transverse directions, losing little energy to hysteresis. We also test the failure properties of aponeuroses to quantify the likely safety factor with which these structures operate during muscular force production. These results provide an essential foundation for understanding the mechanical function of aponeuroses as biaxially loaded biological springs.
Authors:
Emanuel Azizi; Gregory M Halenda; Thomas J Roberts
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2009-04-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Integrative and comparative biology     Volume:  49     ISSN:  1557-7023     ISO Abbreviation:  Integr. Comp. Biol.     Publication Date:  2009 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-06-14     Completed Date:  2012-10-02     Revised Date:  2014-09-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101152341     Medline TA:  Integr Comp Biol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  51-8     Citation Subset:  -    
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Descriptor/Qualifier:
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R01 AR055295/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS
Comments/Corrections

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