Document Detail


Measurements of transepidermal water loss in newborn infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3978994     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Measurement of transepidermal water loss without disturbing the microclimate in the air layers above the skin has not been possible with previously available methods. The introduction of a new instrument, the Evaporimeter, for measuring the vapor pressure gradient above the skin surface meant that the evaporation of water from the skin could be determined. Each measurement is of short duration, and measurements can be made even in the most preterm infants under the conditions in which they are normally nursed. Studies of the evaporation rate and transepidermal water loss by this technique have increased our knowledge considerably during the last ten years. It is now well established that the loss of water from the skin surface is related to the ambient humidity, gestational age at birth, and postnatal age, and to weight, activity, and body temperature, and that it differs between appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age infants. Conclusions of special clinical importance drawn from these studies are that the most preterm infants may lose as much as 13 per cent of their body weight as TEWL during their first day after birth even at an ambient humidity of 50 per cent, and much more at a lower ambient humidity, and that their losses gradually diminish with age but are of significance even four weeks after birth. Small-for-gestational-age infants have a lower TEWL early after birth than appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. For heat exchange between the infant and its environment, TEWL plays an important role. In preterm infants, losses of heat through evaporation are very high early after birth. On the other hand, their heat losses through other routes are smaller because of the high ambient temperature in which they have be nursed in order to maintain a stable and normal body temperature. Simultaneous measurements of evaporation rate and skin blood flow have shown that the skin blood flow increases at a lower body temperature than the evaporation rate and that not all full-term infants sweat in a warm environment even when their body temperature becomes higher than 37.2 degrees C, which may indicate a delay in the postnatal adaptation of heat regulation. In addition, this regulation can easily be disturbed by a central cold-stimulation in infants who react with sweating in a warm environment.
Authors:
G Sedin; K Hammarlund; G E Nilsson; B Strömberg; P A Oberg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinics in perinatology     Volume:  12     ISSN:  0095-5108     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin Perinatol     Publication Date:  1985 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1985-05-01     Completed Date:  1985-05-01     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7501306     Medline TA:  Clin Perinatol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  79-99     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Body Temperature
Electronics, Medical
Humans
Infant, Newborn*
Infant, Premature
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Perinatology / instrumentation
Skin Physiological Phenomena*
Sweating
Water Loss, Insensible*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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