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Measurement of the efficacy of calcium silicate for the protection and repair of dental enamel.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24993852     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from calcium silicate and the deposition of calcium silicate onto sound and acid eroded enamel surfaces in order to investigate its repair and protective properties.
METHODS: Calcium silicate was mixed with phosphate buffer for seven days and the resulting solids analysed for crystalline phases by Raman spectroscopy. Deposition studies were conducted on bovine enamel surfaces. Acid etched regions were produced on the enamel surfaces using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) with acid filled pipettes and varying contact times. Following treatment with calcium silicate, the deposition was visualised with FE-SEM and etch pit volumes were measured by AFM. A second set of bovine enamel specimens were pre-treated with calcium silicate and fluoride, before acid exposure with the SECCM. The volumes of the resultant acid etched pits were measured using AFM and the intrinsic rate constant for calcium loss was calculated.
RESULTS: Raman spectroscopy confirmed that HAP was formed from calcium silicate. Deposition studies demonstrated greater delivery of calcium silicate to acid eroded than sound enamel and that the volume of acid etched enamel pits was significantly reduced following one treatment (p<0.05). In the protection study, the intrinsic rate constant for calcium loss from enamel was 0.092±0.008cm/s. This was significantly reduced, 0.056±0.005cm/s, for the calcium silicate treatments (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Calcium silicate can transform into HAP and can be deposited on acid eroded and sound enamel surfaces. Calcium silicate can provide significant protection of sound enamel from acid challenges.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Calcium silicate is a material that has potential for a new approach to the repair of demineralised enamel and the protection of enamel from acid attacks, leading to significant dental hard tissue benefits.
Alexander S Parker; Anisha N Patel; Rehab Al Botros; Michael E Snowden; Kim McKelvey; Patrick R Unwin; Alexander T Ashcroft; Mel Carvell; Andrew Joiner; Massimo Peruffo
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of dentistry     Volume:  42 Suppl 1     ISSN:  1879-176X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Dent     Publication Date:  2014 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-07-04     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0354422     Medline TA:  J Dent     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S21-9     Citation Subset:  D; IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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