Document Detail

Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18703459     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.
Sarah G Mars; Pamela M Ling
Related Documents :
15237269 - Acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis: a case and an overview of side effects affec...
15937269 - Assessment of psychopharmacology on the american board of psychiatry and neurology exam...
6882989 - Sadistic fantasy, sadistic behaviour and offending.
2394049 - Reflex sympathetic dystrophy in children.
386709 - Generalized aspergillosis showing a granulomatous pattern.
17570979 - A case of moniliformis moniliformis (acanthocephala) infection in iran.
2582679 - Shape the implant to the patient. a rationale for the use of custom-fit cementless tota...
1568049 - Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma: a case report and review of the japanese literature.
23716959 - Variable permanent mandibular first molar: review of literature.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-08-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of public health     Volume:  98     ISSN:  1541-0048     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Public Health     Publication Date:  2008 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-09-11     Completed Date:  2008-09-26     Revised Date:  2014-09-22    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1254074     Medline TA:  Am J Public Health     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1793-802     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Advisory Committees / history
Consumer Product Safety*
Dissent and Disputes / history*
Expert Testimony*
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Public Health / history*
Tobacco Industry / history*
Tobacco Use Disorder / history*
United States
United States Public Health Service / history
World Health Organization / history
Grant Support
1R25 CA113710-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS; CA-87472/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R25 CA113710/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R25 CA113710-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited settings: the Elizabeth Glaser Pe...
Next Document:  The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women: a randomized contro...