Document Detail

Meal and snack patterns of infants and toddlers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14702020     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To describe meal and snack patterns of infants and toddlers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intakes for a 24-hour period. SUBJECTS: Subjects included 3,022 infants and toddlers, ages 4 to 24 months, in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Means+/-standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyses, nutrient densities. RESULTS: On average, infants and toddlers were fed seven times per day. The breakfast, lunch, and dinner pattern, plus snacks, emerged at 7 to 8 months and was well established by 9 to 11 months. Breakfasts were higher in nutrient density for iron, folate, and calcium than other meals. The percentage of children reported to be eating snacks increased with age. The afternoon snack was consumed by over 80% of toddlers (12 to 24 months), and snacks provided about 25% of toddlers' daily energy intakes. Typical snack foods for toddlers were milk, water, cookies, crackers, chips, and fruit drinks. APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study provide parents and professionals with specific information about meal and snack patterns, thereby allowing development of targeted messages and/or strategies to improve the dietary patterns of infants and toddlers. Although most foods provided to the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study infants and toddlers were nutritionally and developmentally appropriate, snack choices could be improved by delaying introduction of and limiting exposures to foods low in nutrients and high in calories.
Jean D Skinner; Paula Ziegler; Susan Pac; Barbara Devaney
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Volume:  104     ISSN:  0002-8223     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Diet Assoc     Publication Date:  2004 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-12-31     Completed Date:  2004-01-29     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503061     Medline TA:  J Am Diet Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  s65-70     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Nutrition Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet / standards*
Food Habits*
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Interviews as Topic
Nutrition Surveys
Time Factors

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