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Maternally localized germ plasm mRNAs and germ cell/stem cell formation in the cnidarian Clytia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22309706     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The separation of the germ line from the soma is a classic concept in animal biology, and depending on species is thought to involve fate determination either by maternally localized germ plasm ("preformation" or "maternal inheritance") or by inductive signaling (classically termed "epigenesis" or "zygotic induction"). The latter mechanism is generally considered to operate in non-bilaterian organisms such as cnidarians and sponges, in which germ cell fate is determined at adult stages from multipotent stem cells. We have found in the hydrozoan cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica that the multipotent "interstitial" cells (i-cells) in larvae and adult medusae, from which germ cells derive, express a set of conserved germ cell markers: Vasa, Nanos1, Piwi and PL10. In situ hybridization analyses unexpectedly revealed maternal mRNAs for all these genes highly concentrated in a germ plasm-like region at the egg animal pole and inherited by the i-cell lineage, strongly suggesting i-cell fate determination by inheritance of animal-localized factors. On the other hand, experimental tests showed that i-cells can form by epigenetic mechanisms in Clytia, since larvae derived from both animal and vegetal blastomeres separated during cleavage stages developed equivalent i-cell populations. Thus Clytia embryos appear to have maternal germ plasm inherited by i-cells but also the potential to form these cells by zygotic induction. Reassessment of available data indicates that maternally localized germ plasm molecular components were plausibly present in the common cnidarian/bilaterian ancestor, but that their role may not have been strictly deterministic.
Authors:
Lucas Leclère; Muriel Jager; Carine Barreau; Patrick Chang; Hervé Le Guyader; Michaël Manuel; Evelyn Houliston
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1095-564X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-2-7     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372762     Medline TA:  Dev Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Affiliation:
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7138 CNRS MNHN IRD, Case 05, 7 quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France.
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