Document Detail

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10078497     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. METHODS: Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. RESULTS: Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.
P A Brennan; E R Grekin; S A Mednick
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of general psychiatry     Volume:  56     ISSN:  0003-990X     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Gen. Psychiatry     Publication Date:  1999 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-03-18     Completed Date:  1999-03-18     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372435     Medline TA:  Arch Gen Psychiatry     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  215-9     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Antisocial Personality Disorder / epidemiology,  etiology
Cohort Studies
Crime / statistics & numerical data*
Criminal Psychology
Denmark / epidemiology
Health Behavior
Juvenile Delinquency / statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Maternal Welfare
Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
Prospective Studies
Risk Factors
Sex Factors
Smoking / adverse effects*,  epidemiology
Comment In:
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;56(3):223-4   [PMID:  10078498 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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