Document Detail

Maternal literacy modifies the effect of toilets and piped water on infant survival in Malaysia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3358408     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The effect of toilets, piped water, and maternal literacy on infant mortality was analyzed using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey collected in 1976-1977. The effect of toilets and piped water on infant mortality was dependent on whether or not mothers were literate. The impact of having toilets was greater among the illiterate than among the literate, but the impact of piped water was greater among the literate than among the illiterate. The effect on the infant mortality rate for toilets decreased from 130.7 +/- 17.2 deaths in the absence of literate mothers to 76.2 +/- 25.9 deaths in the presence of literate mothers. The reduction in the mortality rate for maternal literacy dropped from 44.4 +/- 14.1 deaths without toilets to -10.1 +/- 23.9 deaths with toilets. Reductions in mortality rates for piped water increased from 16.7 +/- 12.7 deaths without literate mothers to 36.8 +/- 21.0 deaths with literate mothers. Similarly, reductions in the mortality rate for maternal literacy rose from 44.4 +/- 14.1 deaths in the absence of piped water to 64.5 +/- 19.5 deaths in the presence of piped water. The results from a logistic model provided inferences similar to those from ordinary least squares. The authors infer that literate mothers protect their infants especially in unsanitary environments lacking toilets, and that when piped water is introduced, they use it more effectively to practice better hygiene for their infants.
S A Esrey; J P Habicht
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of epidemiology     Volume:  127     ISSN:  0002-9262     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Epidemiol.     Publication Date:  1988 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1988-05-18     Completed Date:  1988-05-18     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7910653     Medline TA:  Am J Epidemiol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1079-87     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205.
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MeSH Terms
Educational Status*
Epidemiologic Methods
Infant Mortality*
Infant, Newborn
Toilet Facilities*
Water Supply*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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