Document Detail

Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD symptoms in offspring: testing for intrauterine effects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22791738     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. It is assumed by many that this association is causal. Others suggest that observed associations are due to unmeasured genetic factors or other confounding factors. The authors compared risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy with those of paternal smoking during pregnancy. With a causal intrauterine effect, no independent association should be observed between paternal smoking and offspring ADHD. If the association is due to confounding factors, risks of offspring ADHD should be of similar magnitudes regardless of which parent smokes. This hypothesis was tested in 8,324 children from a well-characterized United Kingdom prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (data from 1991-2000). Associations between offspring ADHD and maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy were compared using regression analyses. Offspring ADHD symptoms were associated with exposure to both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy (mothers: β = 0.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.32; fathers: β = 0.21, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.27). When paternal smoking was examined in the absence of maternal smoking, associations remained and did not appear to be due to passive smoking exposure in utero. These findings suggest that associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child ADHD may be due to genetic or household-level confounding rather than to causal intrauterine effects.
Kate Langley; Jon Heron; George Davey Smith; Anita Thapar
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-07-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of epidemiology     Volume:  176     ISSN:  1476-6256     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Epidemiol.     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-07-30     Completed Date:  2012-10-03     Revised Date:  2014-02-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7910653     Medline TA:  Am J Epidemiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  261-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology,  etiology*
Birth Weight
Fathers / statistics & numerical data*
Great Britain / epidemiology
Linear Models
Maternal Exposure / adverse effects
Mothers / statistics & numerical data*
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / epidemiology*
Prospective Studies
Risk Factors
Sex Factors
Smoking / adverse effects*
Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
Grant Support
076467//Wellcome Trust; 092731//Wellcome Trust; 74882//Medical Research Council; G0600705//Medical Research Council; G1000632//Medical Research Council; G9810900//Medical Research Council; G9815508//Medical Research Council
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Tobacco Smoke Pollution

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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