Document Detail


Marijuana, Spice 'herbal high', and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22887867     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ⁹-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product 'Spice' branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to 'high potency' marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana.
Authors:
Delphine Psychoyos; K Yaragudri Vinod
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2012-08-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Drug testing and analysis     Volume:  5     ISSN:  1942-7611     ISO Abbreviation:  Drug Test Anal     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-08     Completed Date:  2013-06-03     Revised Date:  2014-08-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101483449     Medline TA:  Drug Test Anal     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  27-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Anencephaly / epidemiology,  etiology
Animals
Cannabinoids / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*
Central Nervous System / drug effects*,  embryology
Dronabinol / administration & dosage,  adverse effects
Drug and Narcotic Control*
Female
Humans
Marijuana Abuse / complications*,  epidemiology
Maternal Exposure / adverse effects
Mental Disorders / epidemiology,  etiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology,  physiopathology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / physiopathology,  prevention & control
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
AA018709/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS; DA020531/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; F32 DA021977/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; F32DA021977/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; MH085079/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R03 MH085079/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R21 AA018709/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS; R21 DA020531/DA/NIDA NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cannabinoids; 7J8897W37S/Dronabinol
Comments/Corrections

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