Document Detail

Manganese-induced parkinsonism in methcathinone abusers: bio-markers of exposure and follow-up.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23347399     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Methcathinone abuse is a new cause of manganism. The psychostimulant is prepared from pseudoephedrine using potassium permanganate as an oxidant. We describe the clinical, biological, neuroimaging characteristics and follow-up results in a large Estonian cohort of intravenous methcathinone users. METHODS: During 2006-2012 we studied 38 methcathinone abusers with a mean age of 33 years. Subjects were rated by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr (HY), and Schwab and England (SE) rating scales. Twenty-four cases were reassessed 9-70 (20 ± 15) months after the initial evaluation. Manganese (Mn) in plasma and hair was analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atom emission spectrometry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 11, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with iodobenzamide (IBZM) in eight subjects. RESULTS: The average total UPDRS score was 43 ± 21. The most severely affected domains in UPDRS Part III were speech and postural stability, the least affected domain was resting tremor. At follow-up there was worsening of HY and SE rating scales. Subjects had a higher mean level of Mn in hair (2.9 ± 3.8 ppm) than controls (0.82 ± 1.02 ppm), P = 0.02. Plasma Mn concentrations were higher (11.5 ± 6.2 ppb) in active than in former users (5.6 ± 1.8 ppb), P = 0.006. Active methcathinone users had increased MRI T1-signal intensity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and periaquaductal gray matter. IBZM-SPECT showed normal symmetric tracer uptake in striatum. CONCLUSION: Methcathinone abusers develop a distinctive hypokinetic syndrome. Though the biomarkers of Mn exposure are characteristic only of recent abuse, the syndrome is not reversible.
K Sikk; S Haldre; S-M Aquilonius; A Asser; M Paris; A Roose; J Petterson; S-L Eriksson; J Bergquist; P Taba
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of neurology : the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1468-1331     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur. J. Neurol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-25     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9506311     Medline TA:  Eur J Neurol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
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