Document Detail

Management of Acute Diarrhea in Emergency Room.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23192407     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of under-five mortality in India. It is defined as the passage of frequent watery stools (>3/24 h). Recent change in consistency of stools is more important than frequency. Acute diarrhea is caused by variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic agents. The common ones are: Rotavirus, E. coli, Shigella, Cholera, and Salmonella. Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia and E. histolytica are also not uncommon. The most important concern in management of acute diarrhea in Emergency room (ER) is fluid and electrolyte imbalances and treatment of underlying infection, wherever applicable. It includes, initial stabilization (identification and treatment of shock), assessment of hydration and rehydration therapy, recognition and treatment of electrolyte imbalance, and use of appropriate antimicrobials wherever indicated. For assessment of hydration clinical signs are generally reliable; however, in severely malnourished children sunken eyes and skin turgor are unreliable. Oral Rehydration Therapy is the cornerstone of management of dehydration. Intravenous fluids are not routinely recommended except in cases of persistent vomiting and/or shock. Majority of cases can be managed in ER and at home. Hospitalization is indicated in infants <3 mo, children with severe dehydration, severe malnutrition, toxic look, persistent vomiting and suspected surgical abdomen. Supplementations with zinc and probiotics have been shown to reduce severity and duration of diarrhea; however evidence does not support the use of antisecretary, antimotility and binding agents. Education of parents about hand hygiene, safe weaning and safe drinking water etc., can help in reducing incidence of this important health problem in the country.
Parag Dekate; M Jayashree; Sunit C Singhi
Related Documents :
15280727 - Advantages of cochlear implantation in prelingual deaf children before 2 years of age w...
7487647 - Tympanometric screening in elementary school children.
12858057 - N100m in children possessing absolute pitch.
25122077 - Septic arthritis and acute rheumatic fever in children: the diagnostic value of serolog...
15857557 - Bloodstream infection in children.
12820197 - Regression-based prediction of net energy expenditure in children performing activities...
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Indian journal of pediatrics     Volume:  -     ISSN:  0973-7693     ISO Abbreviation:  Indian J Pediatr     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0417442     Medline TA:  Indian J Pediatr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Synthesis of ?-N-propionyl-, ?-N-butyryl-, and ?-N-crotonyl-lysine containing histone H3 using the p...
Next Document:  Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pi...