Document Detail

Mammary gland development.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22844349     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.
Hector Macias; Lindsay Hinck
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Developmental biology     Volume:  1     ISSN:  1759-7692     ISO Abbreviation:  Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol     Publication Date:    2012 Jul-Aug
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-08-21     Completed Date:  2014-01-15     Revised Date:  2014-09-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101576624     Medline TA:  Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  533-57     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Cell Differentiation
Cell Lineage
Hormones / metabolism
Mammals / embryology,  growth & development
Mammary Glands, Animal / cytology,  growth & development*
Mammary Glands, Human / cytology,  growth & development*
Stem Cells / cytology,  metabolism
Grant Support
5P41HG002371-09/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS; GM058903/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS; R01 CA-128902/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R01 CA128902/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R01 CA128902-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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