Document Detail

Mammalian alpha-mannosidases--multiple forms but a common purpose?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7881169     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Previously, alpha-mannosidases were classified as enzymes that process newly formed N-glycans or degrade mature glycoproteins. In this review, we suggest that two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) alpha-mannosidases, previously assigned processing roles, have important catabolic activities. Based on new evidence, we propose that the ER/cytosolic mannosidase is involved in the degradation of dolichol intermediates that are not needed for protein glycosylation, whereas the soluble form of Man9-mannosidase is responsible for the degradation of glycans on defective or malfolded proteins that are specifically retained and broken down in the ER. The degradation of oligosaccharides derived from dolichol intermediates by ER/cytosolic mannosidase now explains why cats and cattle with alpha-mannosidosis store and excrete some unexpected oligosaccharides containing only one GlcNAc residue. Similarly, the action of ER/cytosolic mannosidase, followed by the action of the recently described human lysosomal alpha(1 --> 6)-mannosidase, together explain why alpha-mannosidosis patients store and excrete large amounts of oligosaccharides that resemble biosynthetic intermediates, rather than partially degraded glycans. The relative contributions of the lysosomal and extra-lysosomal catabolic pathways can be derived by comparing the ratio of trisaccharide Man beta (1 --> 4)GlcNAc beta (1 --> 4)GlcNAc to disaccharide Man beta (1 --> 4)GlcNAc accumulated in tissues from goats with beta-mannosidosis. A similar determination in human beta-mannosidosis patients is not possible because the same intermediate, Man beta (1 --> 4)-GlcNAc is a product of both pathways. Based on inhibitor studies with pyranose and furanose analogues, alpha-mannosidases may be divided into two groups. Those in Class 1 are (1 --> 2)-specific enzymes like Golgi mannosidase I, whereas those in Class 2, like lysosomal alpha-mannosidase, can hydrolyse (1 --> 2), (1 --> 3) and (1 --> 6) linkages. A similar classification has recently been derived by others from protein sequence homologies. Based on this new classification of the alpha-mannosidases, it is possible to speculate about their probable evolution from two primordial genes. The first would have been a Class 1 ER enzyme involved in the degradation of glycans on incompletely assembled or malfolded glycoproteins. The second would have been a Class 2 lysosomal enzyme responsible for turnover. Later, other alpha-mannosidases, with new processing or catabolic functions, would have developed from these, by loss or gain of critical insertion or retention sequences, to yield the full complement of alpha-mannosidases known today.
P F Daniel; B Winchester; C D Warren
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Glycobiology     Volume:  4     ISSN:  0959-6658     ISO Abbreviation:  Glycobiology     Publication Date:  1994 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-04-10     Completed Date:  1995-04-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9104124     Medline TA:  Glycobiology     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  551-66     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA 02254.
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MeSH Terms
Carbohydrate Sequence
Glycoproteins / biosynthesis,  metabolism
Isoenzymes / classification,  metabolism*
Lysosomes / enzymology
Mannose / analogs & derivatives
Mannosidases / classification,  metabolism*
Molecular Sequence Data
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Glycoproteins; 0/Isoenzymes; 31103-86-3/Mannose; EC 3.2.1.-/Mannosidases; EC

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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