Document Detail

Malaria infection in infancy in rural Malawi.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8702041     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Malaria infection is thought to be relatively infrequent in infants less than 90 days of age in sub-Saharan Africa. In a rural area of Malawi with intense malaria transmission, we examined the occurrence of malaria infection during infancy and risk factors for parasitemia in the first three months of life in the cohort of infants delivered to women in the Mangochi Malaria Research Project. Among 3,915 liveborn singleton infants, 3,432 (87.7%) were seen at least once during infancy (first 12 months of life); of these, malaria blood smear results were available on 2,649 (77.2%). Overall, in a cross-sectional analysis, 23.3% of infants at three months of age were infected with Plasmodium falciparum; this proportion increased to more than 30% during the high transmission season. By the age of 10 months, 60-80% of the infants were infected, depending on the season. Geometric mean parasite density increased each month after two months of age and plateaued at seven months of age. In a life-table analysis, the median time to acquisition of a positive smear was 199 days. Factors independently associated with smear positivity at < 4 months of age included visit during high transmission season (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.1), maternal smear positivity at the same visit (AOR = 3.5), history of infant fever in the previous two weeks (AOR = 2.8), birth during the rainy season (AOR = 1.7), low socioeconomic status (AOR = 1.6), and low maternal education (AOR = 1.5). The specificity of a recent fever history for malaria infection in early infancy was high (> 70%). Intervention strategies to reduce the risk of early infant infection need to be targeted toward mothers of infants at high risk.
L Slutsker; C O Khoromana; A W Hightower; A Macheso; J J Wirima; J G Breman; D L Heymann; R W Steketee
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene     Volume:  55     ISSN:  0002-9637     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.     Publication Date:  1996  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-09-04     Completed Date:  1996-09-04     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370507     Medline TA:  Am J Trop Med Hyg     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  71-6     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fever / epidemiology,  etiology
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Malaria, Falciparum / complications,  epidemiology*
Malawi / epidemiology
Parasitemia / epidemiology
Risk Factors
Rural Population

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Prospective assessment of mortality among a cohort of pregnant women in rural Malawi.
Next Document:  Infant and second-year mortality in rural Malawi: causes and descriptive epidemiology.