Document Detail

Making sense of surprise: An investigation of the factors influencing surprise judgments.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21244113     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Surprise is often defined in terms of disconfirmed expectations, whereby the surprisingness of an event is thought to be dependent on the degree to which it contrasts with a more likely, or expected, outcome. The authors investigated the alternative hypothesis that surprise is more accurately modeled as a manifestation of an ongoing sense-making process. In a series of experiments, participants were given a number of scenarios and rated surprise and probability for various hypothetical outcomes that either confirmed or disconfirmed an expectation. Experiment 1 demonstrated that representational specificity influences the relationship that holds between surprise and probability ratings. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the inclusion of an enabling event lowers surprise ratings for disconfirming outcomes. Experiment 3 explored the reason for this effect, revealing that enabling events lower surprise by reducing uncertainty, thus enhancing ease of integration. Experiment 4 evaluated the contrast hypothesis directly, showing that differences in contrast are not correlated with differences in surprise. These results provide converging support for the view that the level of surprise experienced for an event is related to the difficulty of integrating that event with an existing representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Rebecca Maguire; Phil Maguire; Mark T Keane
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition     Volume:  37     ISSN:  1939-1285     ISO Abbreviation:  J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8207540     Medline TA:  J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  176-86     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychology, Dublin Business School.
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