Document Detail


Magnetic resonance imaging and multi-detector computed tomography assessment of extracellular compartment in ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial pathologies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25429331     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Myocardial pathologies are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early detection of loss of cellular integrity and expansion in extracellular volume (ECV) in myocardium is critical to initiate effective treatment. The three compartments in healthy myocardium are: intravascular (approximately 10% of tissue volume), interstitium (approximately 15%) and intracellular (approximately 75%). Myocardial cells, fibroblasts and vascular endothelial/smooth muscle cells represent intracellular compartment and the main proteins in the interstitium are types I/III collagens. Microscopic studies have shown that expansion of ECV is an important feature of diffuse physiologic fibrosis (e.g., aging and obesity) and pathologic fibrosis [heart failure, aortic valve disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, amyloidosis, congenital heart disease, aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy (hypereosinophilic and idiopathic types), arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension]. This review addresses recent advances in measuring of ECV in ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to characterize tissue proton relaxation times (T1, T2, and T2*). Proton relaxation times reflect the physical and chemical environments of water protons in myocardium. Delayed contrast enhanced-MRI (DE-MRI) and multi-detector computed tomography (DE-MDCT) demonstrated hyper-enhanced infarct, hypo-enhanced microvascular obstruction zone and moderately enhanced peri-infarct zone, but are limited for visualizing diffuse fibrosis and patchy microinfarct despite the increase in ECV. ECV can be measured on equilibrium contrast enhanced MRI/MDCT and MRI longitudinal relaxation time mapping. Equilibrium contrast enhanced MRI/MDCT and MRI T1 mapping is currently used, but at a lower scale, as an alternative to invasive sub-endomyocardial biopsies to eliminate the need for anesthesia, coronary catheterization and possibility of tissue sampling error. Similar to delayed contrast enhancement, equilibrium contrast enhanced MRI/MDCT and T1 mapping is completely noninvasive and may play a specialized role in diagnosis of subclinical and other myocardial pathologies. DE-MRI and when T1-mapping demonstrated sub-epicardium, sub-endocardial and patchy mid-myocardial enhancement in myocarditis, Behcet's disease and sarcoidosis, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies showed that the combined technique of cine, T2-weighted and DE-MRI technique has high diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocarditis. When the tomographic techniques are coupled with myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function they can provide valuable information on the progression of myocardial pathologies and effectiveness of new therapies.
Authors:
Maythem Saeed; Steven W Hetts; Robert Jablonowski; Mark W Wilson
Publication Detail:
Type:  REVIEW    
Journal Detail:
Title:  World journal of cardiology     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1949-8462     ISO Abbreviation:  World J Cardiol     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-11-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-11-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101537090     Medline TA:  World J Cardiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1192-1208     Citation Subset:  -    
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