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Macroscopic and microscopic features of the mandibular condyle in autopsied elderly individuals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22806887     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Many studies have attempted to classify the macroscopic shapes of the mandibular condyle in humans; however, no consensus has yet been reached because the shapes vary. One problem is that classification of macroscopic morphological changes of the condylar surface has been largely based on bones from ancient people, with few bones from modern people covering many different age groups. In this study, 144 condyles from 78 cadavers (40 men, 38 women; age at death: >70 years) were investigated. The macroscopic shapes of the condyles were classified from posterior and lateral views into four types: convex, flattened, angled, and irregular. Of the 144 condyles, 25 were investigated microscopically. On macroscopic examination, in both posterior and lateral views, convex-type condyles were most frequently observed. Most posterior convex-type condyles were also categorized as the lateral convex type. On histological examination, we observed an increase in cartilage cells (7 condyles, 28%), a decrease in cartilage cells (3 condyles, 12%). Increases in cartilage cells were seen only in angled and irregular types (P = 0.001), whereas decreases in cartilage cells were only observed in the flattened type (P = 0.01). A convex macroscopic form appears to be standard for human mandibular condyles, even in the elderly. The histological findings suggest that mandibular condyles tend to not only undergo flattening, but also undergo progressive changes toward protrusion with age due to increased numbers of cartilage cells. In other words, this study suggests that there is potential for progressive alterations in mandibular condyles in the elderly. Clin. Anat. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Authors:
Mitsuyoshi Nakai; Masato Abe; Akihiro Miyazaki; Mineko Fujimiya; Hiroyoshi Hiratsuka
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-7-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1098-2353     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-7-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8809128     Medline TA:  Clin Anat     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Affiliation:
Department of Oral Surgery, Sapporo Medical University, School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. m.nakai@sapmed.ac.jp.
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