Document Detail

Machakos project studies No. XXIV. Anthropometric changes during pregnancy in rural African women.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  6729988     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Anthropometric data of 1739 pregnant women followed in the period 1 May 1978 - 31 December 1980 are presented. Mean height was 157.1 +/- 5.5 cm. Weight gain between 3 months and term was 5.8 kg. Significant changes in the course of pregnancy were observed in upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Women started pregnancy with a higher mean weight-for-height ratio than the reference; in the course of pregnancy the ratio decreased from 107.0% to 95.7%.
The results of 1 phase of a longitudinal study of the impact of nutritional status during pregnancy on maternal boby weight, birth weight, lactation, and infant growth in a rural population in Ukambani, Kenya, are presented, i.e., information on maternal anthropometric changes, especially weight gains, during pregnancy. 1739 (61%) of 2874 pregnant women who were included in the May 1978 throught December 1980 study. All pregnant women were to be included, and each woman was to be examined during each trimester of her pregnancy; however, fieldworkers failed to identify many pregnancies at early stages and missed some pregnancies. The use of male fieldworkers, the mobility of the population, the tendecy for pregnant women to staty with distant relatives, and several other factors contributed to the failure to identify and examine all the women. Most of the women were examined only during the 3rd trimester (39.4%) or only during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (35.9%). During the examination measurements were taken of weight, height, upper arm circumference, triceps, subscapular skinfold, and muscle and fat areas. Data on food intake during the previous 24-hour period were also collected. The meams of the measurements were calculated, compared with a reference standard, and the significance of changes during the pregnancy wes assessed. The reference standard, utilitzing data on British women, was 90% of the weight for height ratio of Caucasian nonpregnant women and a 20% weight gain at term 15.3% were primiparous, mean age, 19.6 years. The mean age of all the women was 26.3. Mean parity was 2.7 at 25 years of age and 8.7 at 40 years of age. During the early phase of pregnancy, the women had a higher weight for height ratio than the reference standard; however, during the later stages of pregnancy they had a lower ratio than the standard. Mean weight for height as a percentage of the standard was 107.0% during the 1st trimester and declined to 95.7% during the last trimester. Between the 3.1 st month and the 7.6 th month, the mean weight gain was 4.1 kg or 57.8% of the standard. The average weight gain at 8.6 months was 5.8 kg. This represents only an 11.1% increase over the mean nonpregnant weight. This small weight gain is close to borderline malnutriation and may constitute a net pregnancy weight loss if birth weight and the weight of the placenta, amniotic fluid, and the extra water needed for maternal circulation is taken into account. Despite the low weight gain and mean energy intake of 1500-1600 calories/day during pregnancy, the average birth weight was 93.5% of the standard, the low birth weight rate was only 9%, and the mean breast milk yield during the first 3 months was 700 ml. Means of the upper arm circumference, triceps, subscapular skinfolds, and fat areas declined of the anthropometric data are shown in tabular form.
A A Jansen; J A Kusin; B Thiuri; S A Lakhani; W t Mannetje
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Tropical and geographical medicine     Volume:  36     ISSN:  0041-3232     ISO Abbreviation:  Trop Geogr Med     Publication Date:  1984 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1984-07-09     Completed Date:  1984-07-09     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376231     Medline TA:  Trop Geogr Med     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  91-7     Citation Subset:  IM; J    
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MeSH Terms
Birth Weight
Body Height
Body Weight
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Rural Health
Skinfold Thickness

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