Document Detail


Lower birth weight indicates higher risk of autistic traits in discordant twin pairs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22132806     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of complex etiology. Although strong evidence supports the causal role of genetic factors, environmental risk factors have also been implicated. This study used a co-twin-control design to investigate low birth weight as a risk factor for ASD.
METHOD: We studied a population-based sample of 3715 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden (CATSS). ASD was assessed using a structured parent interview for screening of ASD and related developmental disorders, based on DSM-IV criteria. Birth weight was obtained from medical birth records maintained by the Swedish Medical Birth Registry.
RESULTS: Twins lower in birth weight in ASD-discordant twin pairs (n=34) were more than three times more likely to meet criteria for ASD than heavier twins [odds ratio (OR) 3.25]. Analyses of birth weight as a continuous risk factor showed a 13% reduction in risk of ASD for every 100 g increase in birth weight (n=78). Analysis of the effect of birth weight on ASD symptoms in the entire population (most of whom did not have ASD) showed a modest association. That is, for every 100 g increase in birth weight, a 2% decrease in severity of ASD indexed by scores on the Autism - Tics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory would be expected in the sample as a whole.
CONCLUSIONS: The data were consistent with the hypothesis that low birth weight confers risk to ASD. Thus, although genetic effects are of major importance, a non-genetic influence associated with birth weight may contribute to the development of ASD.
Authors:
M Losh; D Esserman; H Anckarsäter; P F Sullivan; P Lichtenstein
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Twin Study     Date:  2011-12-02
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychological medicine     Volume:  42     ISSN:  1469-8978     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychol Med     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-03-30     Completed Date:  2012-08-16     Revised Date:  2013-07-22    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1254142     Medline TA:  Psychol Med     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1091-102     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. m-losh@northwestern.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / diagnosis,  epidemiology*,  psychology
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins / diagnosis,  epidemiology*,  psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight / psychology*
Infant, Newborn
Interview, Psychological
Male
Odds Ratio
Registries
Risk Factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden / epidemiology
Twins
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
KL2 RR025746/RR/NCRR NIH HHS
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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