Document Detail

Lower birth weight as a critical effect of chlorpyrifos: a comparison of human and animal data.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15896443     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Chlorpyrifos is an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE), and inhibition of ChE is believed to be the most sensitive effect in all animal species evaluated and in humans. Recent epidemiology studies reported associations between umbilical cord plasma chlorpyrifos levels and fetal birth weight decreases among minority women living in New York City during pregnancy. These associations raise questions whether impaired fetal development is the critical effect rather than the inhibition of ChE as is currently believed so. We analyze the available information from epidemiology studies and animal studies in order to identify the relative sensitivity of decreased birth weight and inhibition of ChE from exposure to chlorpyrifos. We find that the positive associations from some epidemiology studies are different from other epidemiology investigations. Moreover, a direct comparison of experimental animal neonatal information shows that cholinesterase inhibition is a more sensitive indicator of adverse effect than reduced body weight, and that neonates are equally, or perhaps less sensitive to cholinesterase inhibition than their maternal parent. Based on a review of human studies and comparison of human cord blood chlorpyrifos concentrations with blood chlorpyrifos concentrations that in animals caused effects with good dose-response, it appears unlikely that the exposure level encountered by the population reported in [Whyatt, R.M., Rauh, V., Barr, D.B., Camann, D.E., Andrews, H.F., Garfinkel, R., Hoepner, L.A., Diaz, D., Dietrich, J., Reyes, A., Tang, D., Kinney, P.L., Perera, F.P., 2004. Prenatal insecticide exposures and birth weight and length among an urban minority cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 1125-1132.] study would cause any fetal developmental effect. Moreover, the critical effect for chlorpyrifos still appears to be cholinesterase inhibition.
Qiyu Zhao; Bernard Gadagbui; Michael Dourson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article     Date:  2005-03-26
Journal Detail:
Title:  Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP     Volume:  42     ISSN:  0273-2300     ISO Abbreviation:  Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.     Publication Date:  2005 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-05-17     Completed Date:  2006-01-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8214983     Medline TA:  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  55-63     Citation Subset:  IM    
Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA), 2300 Montana Ave., Suite 409, Cincinnati, OH 45211, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Chlorpyrifos / adverse effects*,  blood
Cholinesterase Inhibitors / adverse effects
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight / blood,  growth & development*,  physiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 2921-88-2/Chlorpyrifos

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