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Low vitamin d status: definition, prevalence, consequences, and correction.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22525842     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Vitamin D is obtained from cutaneous production when 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) by ultraviolet B radiation or by oral intake of vitamin D(2) (ergocalciferol) and D(3). An individual's vitamin D status is best evaluated by measuring the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Although controversy surrounds the definition of low vitamin D status, there is increasing agreement that the optimal circulating 25(OH)D level should be approximately 30 to 32 ng/mL or above. Using this definition, it has been estimated that approximately three-quarters of all adults in the United States have low levels. Low vitamin D status classically has skeletal consequences such as osteomalacia/rickets. More recently, associations between low vitamin D status and increased risk for various nonskeletal morbidities have been recognized; whether all of these associations are causally related to low vitamin D status remains to be determined. To achieve optimal vitamin D status, daily intakes of at least 1000 IU or more of vitamin D are required. The risk of toxicity with "high" amounts of vitamin D intake is low. Substantial between-individual variability exists in response to the same administered vitamin D dose. When to monitor 25(OH)D levels has received little attention. Supplementation with vitamin D(3) may be preferable to vitamin D(2).
Authors:
Neil Binkley; Rekha Ramamurthy; Diane Krueger
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America     Volume:  38     ISSN:  1558-3163     ISO Abbreviation:  Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am.     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8708093     Medline TA:  Rheum Dis Clin North Am     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  45-59     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
University of Wisconsin-Madison Osteoporosis Clinical Center and Research Program, 2870 University Avenue, Suite 100, Madison, WI 53705, USA.
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