Document Detail

Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16169058     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. METHODS: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), alpha1-microglobulin (alpha1-MG), beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., > or =4 microg/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. RESULTS: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, alpha1-MG, beta2-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 microg/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 microg/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in alpha1-MG and NAG (beta2-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. CONCLUSIONS: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake.
T Yamagami; T Ezaki; J Moriguchi; Y Fukui; S Okamoto; H Ukai; H Sakurai; K Aoshima; M Ikeda
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article     Date:  2005-09-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Science of the total environment     Volume:  362     ISSN:  0048-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Sci. Total Environ.     Publication Date:  2006 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-05-23     Completed Date:  2006-07-28     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330500     Medline TA:  Sci Total Environ     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  56-67     Citation Subset:  IM    
Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Acetylglucosaminidase / urine
Alpha-Globulins / urine
Biological Markers / urine
Cadmium / urine*
Environmental Monitoring
Environmental Pollutants / urine*
Food Contamination*
Kidney Tubules / metabolism
Middle Aged
beta 2-Microglobulin / urine
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Alpha-Globulins; 0/Biological Markers; 0/Environmental Pollutants; 0/alpha-1-microglobulin; 0/beta 2-Microglobulin; 7440-43-9/Cadmium; EC

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