|Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 18662372 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|Acrylamide is produced in starchy foods that are baked, roasted or fried at high temperatures. Concerns about the potential health issues associated with the dietary intake of this reactive compound led us to reduce the accumulation of asparagine, one of its main precursors, in the tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This metabolic change was accomplished by silencing two asparagine synthetase genes through 'all-native DNA' transformation. Glasshouse-grown tubers of the transformed intragenic plants contained up to 20-fold reduced levels of free asparagine. This metabolic change coincided with a small increase in the formation of glutamine and did not affect tuber shape or yield. Heat-processed products derived from the low-asparagine tubers were also indistinguishable from their untransformed counterparts in terms of sensory characteristics. However, both French fries and potato chips accumulated as little as 5% of the acrylamide present in wild-type controls. Given the important role of processed potato products in the modern Western diet, a replacement of current varieties with intragenic potatoes could reduce the average daily intake of acrylamide by almost one-third.|
|Caius M Rommens; Hua Yan; Kathy Swords; Craig Richael; Jingsong Ye|
|Type: Journal Article Date: 2008-07-23|
|Title: Plant biotechnology journal Volume: 6 ISSN: 1467-7652 ISO Abbreviation: Plant Biotechnol. J. Publication Date: 2008 Oct|
|Created Date: 2008-09-12 Completed Date: 2008-11-05 Revised Date: 2013-06-05|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 101201889 Medline TA: Plant Biotechnol J Country: England|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 843-53 Citation Subset: IM|
|Simplot Plant Sciences, JR Simplot Company, Boise, ID 83706, USA. email@example.com|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Asparagine / biosynthesis*
Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / genetics
Plant Proteins / genetics
Plant Tubers / genetics, metabolism
Plants, Genetically Modified / chemistry, genetics
RNA, Plant / genetics
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Solanum tuberosum / chemistry*, genetics*
|0/Plant Proteins; 0/RNA, Plant; 7006-34-0/Asparagine; 79-06-1/Acrylamide; EC 184.108.40.206/Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase|
|Plant Biotechnol J. 2008 Oct;6(8):854
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Plant Biotechnol J
Journal ID (publisher-id): pbi
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
? 2008 J. R. Simplot Company Journal compilation ? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
open-access: Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.
Received Day: 09 Month: 5 Year: 2008
Revision Received Day: 21 Month: 6 Year: 2008
Accepted Day: 24 Month: 6 Year: 2008
Print publication date: Month: 10 Year: 2008
Volume: 6 Issue: 8
First Page: 843 Last Page: 853
PubMed Id: 18662372
|Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips|
|Caius M Rommens*|
|Simplot Plant Sciences, J. R. Simplot CompanyBoise, ID 83706, USA
|Correspondence: *Correspondence (fax (208) 327-3212; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org)
Asparagine plays an apparently important role in the assimilation and storage of nitrogen (Lam et al., 2003), and is particularly abundant in the products of wheat (Triticum aestivum) (Benedito et al., 1989), coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) (Mazzafera, 1999) and potato (Talley et al., 1970). On heat processing, the amide amino acid reacts with reducing sugars to produce acrylamide (Mottram et al., 2002). Average daily intake levels of this Maillard reaction product are estimated to be 0.3?0.7 ?g acrylamide/kg/day (Dybing et al., 2005). Ingested acrylamide is readily absorbed and metabolized, in part, by a cytochrome P450 to produce mercapturic acid and glycidamide (Boettcher et al., 2005). Although mercapturic acid is excreted via the urine, both the remaining acrylamide and its reactive metabolite bind to various proteins as well as DNA (Barber et al., 2007; Martins et al., 2007). High levels of adduct formation have been linked to animal health issues, including cumulative nerve terminal damage (Johnson et al., 1986; Friedman et al., 1995). In humans, oral intake levels believed to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects are currently estimated to be 3.0 ?g acrylamide/day (http://www.epa.gov/iris). This level of dietary intake is exceeded in small subsets of the population, particularly in young children and adolescents (Dybing et al., 2005). In their preliminary JECFA/64/SC report (http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/summaries/summary_report_64_final.pdf), the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants has therefore recommended reducing the acrylamide content of processed starchy foods.
Recently developed methods to limit acrylamide formation require changes in grower or processor practices, which may limit their broad application. For instance, the beneficial effect of sulphur fertilization on lowering the acrylamide potential of potato and wheat (Elmore et al., 2007) is offset by increased farmer input costs and sulphur contamination issues. Furthermore, the partial decreases in acrylamide concentration that can be achieved by modifying processing variables, such as the time and temperature of heating (Rydberg et al., 2005; Amrein et al., 2006), yield products that have lost some of their original colour, flavor and/or texture, and may therefore be less appealing to consumers. A third approach incubates raw materials with either asparagine-metabolizing enzymes or amino acids that compete with asparagine in the Maillard reaction (Elder et al., 2006; Howie et al., 2006). Such treatments have been shown to be only partially effective for some raw food ingredients, require high concentrations of the additive, and are too difficult and costly to apply broadly. A preferred route to the reduction of acrylamide would be to shift to crops that are naturally poor in acrylamide precursors. However, there are currently no such varieties available that also display all the additional input, processing and quality traits demanded by the processing industry (Vivanti et al., 2006). Given the complexity of wheat, coffee and potato breeding, efforts to develop such new processing varieties will require 15 years or more.
A faster route to decrease the acrylamide potential of food crops was established 2 years ago through genetic engineering. Simultaneous silencing of two tuber-expressed genes in starch degradation, which encode water dikinase R1 and amyloplast-targeted phosphorylase-L, led to a decrease in the accumulation of glucose and fructose by approximately twofold (Rommens et al., 2006). Reduced browning of processed products from these modified tubers correlated with an approximately two- to threefold decrease in acrylamide levels. In this article, an alternative approach for the production of low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips is described that does not alter their sensory characteristics. This new method is based on the tuber-specific silencing of two genes in asparagine biosynthesis, and reduces the concentration of free asparagine by up to 95%.
Asparagine synthetase (As) catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of aspartate into asparagine. Two cDNAs for this key enzyme in asparagine biosynthesis, designated as StAs1 and StAs2, were amplified from a tuber poly(A)+ mRNA-derived library of the potato variety Ranger Russet. The 1.6-kb open reading frames share 71% sequence identity and encode products with a typical ~190-amino-acid N-terminal glutaminase domain (cd00712), which is involved in the hydrolysis of glutamine to produce glutamate and ammonia (Marchler-Bauer et al., 2007) (Figure 1). The predicted secondary structures of both of these proteins and their functional orthologues resemble that of the crystallized AsB of Escherichia coli (Larsen et al., 1999) (Figure 1). StAs1 shares most homology with the proteins encoded by the dark-inducible HaAs1 from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (86%) and the AtAs1 gene from Arabidopsis (83%). In contrast, StAs2 is more closely related to the product of the weakly expressed and light-inducible AtAs2 gene (86%) (Figure 1).
In an attempt to limit the accumulation of asparagine in potato tubers, a silencing construct was designed that simultaneously targets the expression of StAs1 and StAs2 (Figure 2a). The two genes are quite divergent at the DNA level, with short (approximately 5 bp) stretches of homology interrupted by mismatches. Therefore, 0.4-kb fragments from both StAs1 and StAs2 were fused to create a DNA segment, and two copies of this segment were inserted as an inverted repeat between two convergently orientated promoters. It was our primary intent to reduce the transcription of the StAs1 and StAs2 genes in tubers, whilst limiting the extent of gene silencing in the foliage where the gene products play important roles in both photorespiration (Ta et al., 1985) and ammonium detoxification (Wong et al., 2004). For this reason, promoters were employed that were at least 100-fold more active in tubers than in leaves: the granule-bound starch synthase (Gbss) and a short (2.2-kb) version of the potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Agp) (Visser et al., 1991; Muller-Rober et al., 1994; C. Richael, unpubl. data). The resulting silencing construct was positioned within a potato-derived transfer (P-) DNA to create the binary vector pSIM1256.
An Agrobacterium LBA4404 strain containing pSIM1256 was used for marker-free and all-native DNA transformation of the ?French fry? variety Ranger Russet (Richael et al., 2008). Fifteen shoots with a P-DNA+/backbone? genotype were rooted, confirmed by DNA gel blot analysis to contain at least one P-DNA integration event (Figure 2b, and data not shown) and propagated in vitro for the production of intragenic lines. Three plants of each of the 15 transformed lines were grown in the glasshouse for 3 months. Both the yield and size of harvested tubers were similar to those of untransformed controls (Figure 3a,b). The specific gravity, which is a reliable indicator of starch content, was also unaffected by the genetic modification (data not shown). An association between the presence of the silencing construct and two- to fivefold decreased transcript levels for the StAs2 gene in tubers of 12 of the 15 lines was subsequently demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Figure 3c). RNA gel blot analysis, although less sensitive, confirmed this result (Figure 3d), and also indicated that silencing of the StAs2 gene was fully correlated with suppressed expression of the StAs1 gene (Figure 3e). The effective establishment of StAs1/2 gene silencing in intragenic lines was mainly attributed to the presence of fragments from the two targeted genes in the silencing construct. In addition, it is possible that the partial homology between the StAs1 gene fragment and the resident StAs2 gene, and vice versa, was sufficient for some cross-silencing (Jackson et al., 2003).
Tubers from all the intragenic lines were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the effect of StAs1/2 gene silencing on the accumulation of asparagine. As shown in Figure 3f, the content of this amide amino acid was up to 20-fold lower in intragenic tubers than in the tubers transformed with an ?empty? vector control. Interestingly, tubers of line 1256-45 contained higher As2 transcript levels but lower concentrations of asparagine than tubers of, for instance, line 1256-26. This finding suggests that the various intragenic lines differ in their content of reducing sugars and/or other compounds that influence the potential for acrylamide formation (Rydberg et al., 2005). Further studies on four randomly chosen lines, 1256-6, 1256-26, 1256-27 and 1256-45, demonstrated that reduced asparagine levels coincided with a 1.5?2.5-fold increase in the accumulation of the alternative amide amino acid glutamine, which resembles asparagine in that it contains two amino groups (Figure 3g). All other tested amino acids remained at wild-type levels (Figure 3g), and the protein content was also unaltered (Figure 3h). However, the total amount of tested free amino acids in tubers from line 1256-26, which contained the smallest amount of asparagine, was 16% less than that of controls and other intragenic lines, indicating that an almost complete impairment of asparagine formation may have a rippling negative effect on the biosynthesis of other amino acids.
A second expression cassette that contained the StAs1/2-derived inverted repeat between two Gbss promoters was also tested for its efficacy to reduce the accumulation of asparagine in tubers. The vector carrying this alternative version of the silencing cassette (pSIM1151) was used to produce 12 transformed lines. HPLC analyses demonstrated that tubers from most of the transformed lines contained the same asparagine levels as wild-type controls (Figure 4). Only three transformed lines produced tubers with less than one-half the amount of asparagine that accumulated in controls. This result confirms earlier studies, which indicated that tuber-specific and convergent transcription-mediated gene silencing is triggered more effectively by the combination of Gbss and Agp promoters than by two copies of the Gbss promoter (Yan et al., 2006). It can be concluded that silencing of the StAs1 and StAs2 genes caused a dramatic decrease in the accumulation of asparagine in tubers without compromising the yield of glasshouse-grown transgenic lines.
Potatoes are generally stored at temperatures that limit cold-induced sweetening (7?10 ?C). For proof-of-concept experiments designed to determine the effect of low asparagine levels on acrylamide production, the storage temperatures were decreased to 4 ?C. After a 1-month incubation period, tubers contained 8.8 ? 0.37 mg/g fresh weight (FW) of glucose, which is 12-fold higher than the glucose levels in freshly harvested tubers. Initially, the cold-stored tubers of eight intragenic lines (1256-6, 1256-26, 1256-27, 1256-45, 1256-83, 1256-90, 1256-96 and 1256-109) were blanched, cut, par-fried and finish-fried for 2 min 45 s for the production of lightly coloured French fries. HPLC analyses of these materials demonstrated that the control product contained 126 ng g?1 of acrylamide, whereas the presence of this undesirable Maillard reaction product was often below the detection limit of 20 ng g?1 in intragenic fries (data not shown). The finish-frying time was therefore extended to 4 min, and produced brown French fries for both untransformed controls and intragenic tubers (Figure 5a). As expected, the longer frying time resulted in the formation of more acrylamide in controls (1097 ng g?1), and low but detectable levels of this compound in intragenic fries (Figure 5b). Importantly, fries from lines 1256-26 and 1256-45 contained only approximately 5% of the acrylamide that accumulated in controls. The correlation coefficient between tuber asparagine levels and fry acrylamide levels was 0.9074, indicating that asparagine plays an important role in acrylamide formation.
The four intragenic lines 1256-27, 1256-83, 1256-90 and 1256-96 were evaluated by a team of professionally trained food scientists for various aspects of texture (crispness, mouthfeel, mealiness and texture variation) and taste (caramel taste, fresh fried taste and aroma). These assessments demonstrated that the above-described resemblance in the visual appearance of intragenic and control fries coincided with a similar texture and taste (Table 1). Collectively, our results demonstrated that a 3?18-fold decrease in the asparagine content of potato tubers resulted in a similar fold decrease in the amount of acrylamide accumulated during heat processing. These changes did not affect the tuber yield or French fry quality.
The high surface-to-volume ratio of sliced tubers that are used for chip production promotes the rapid formation of acrylamide during heat processing (Matth?us et al., 2004). Therefore, the glucose concentration of cold-stored tubers was decreased (to 2.8 ? 0.12 mg/g FW) by incubation for 2 weeks at 15 ?C. Potato chips obtained from reconditioned control tubers contained 4318 ? 1138 ng g?1 of acrylamide (Figure 6a,b), which is still approximately fourfold higher than that for French fries from cold-stored tubers (Figure 5b). Intragenic chips from lines 1256-27 and 1256-83 accumulated much lower levels of acrylamide (861 and 1153 ng g?1, respectively). However, these levels may still be sufficiently high to pose potential health issues. Thus, the impairment of asparagine biosynthesis is not always sufficient to guarantee low levels of acrylamide formation.
In an effort to optimize the decrease in acrylamide, the potato variety Atlantic, which contains much lower levels of glucose and fructose than does Ranger Russet (Webb et al., 1978), was transformed. Fifteen of 844 shoots regenerated from infected explants were shown by PCR-based genotyping to contain the StAs1/2 gene silencing construct, whilst lacking backbone DNA, indicating a frequency for marker-free and backbone-free transformation of 1.8%. Plants of three intragenic lines that displayed reduced StAs1 and StAs2 gene expression levels, designated as 1256A-3, 1256A-5 and 1256A-6, were confirmed to contain at least one P-DNA insert (Figure 6c), and were grown in the glasshouse for tuber production. Harvested tubers accumulated 7.1%?18.4% of the asparagine that was produced in untransformed control tubers (Figure 6d). These fresh tubers were subsequently processed using standard procedures to produce potato chips. Figure 6e shows that control chips from Atlantic tubers contained 840 ng g?1 of acrylamide, which is about fivefold lower than the levels in chips from untransformed Ranger Russet tubers. Acrylamide levels were much lower in the processed material from intragenic lines, most notably line 1256A-5. This particular intragenic line contained only 8% of the acrylamide that was present in chips from untransformed Atlantic tubers (67 ng g?1), and may prove to be suitable for commercial production if none of the original agronomic characteristics of the Atlantic variety are lost as a consequence of the transformation process.
Simultaneous silencing of the StAs1 and StAs2 genes decreases the accumulation of free asparagine in potato tubers by up to 95%. Because asparagine plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation and storage (Lam et al., 2003; Lea et al., 2007), it was somewhat surprising that the targeted metabolic change did not affect the yield or shape of tubers from glasshouse-grown plants. To some extent, the intragenic tubers adjusted to the impaired asparagine biosynthesis by both accumulating more glutamine, which is the precursor of asparagine and has only a slightly lower nitrogen to carbon ratio, and increasing protein biosynthesis. It is also possible that tubers increased the formation of ?-aminobutyric acid, which contains about 11% of soluble nitrogen (Thompson et al., 1953). A full analysis of the extent to which intragenic tubers are capable of compensating for their lost ability to assimilate and store nitrogen in the form of asparagine will be carried out in future work. Regardless of the outcome of these studies, it was found that the tuber-specific silencing of the StAs1 and StAs2 genes did not affect the tuber yield of glasshouse-grown plants. This finding is in agreement with a previous study on transgenic potato plants down-regulated for the amino acid symporter StAap1 (Koch et al., 2003). Substantially decreased levels of free amino acids in the tubers of these transgenic plants were not associated with negative side-effects on leaf metabolism, tuber yield or phenotype.
In contrast with the tuber-specific silencing strategy employed in this work, it is predicted that strong constitutive silencing of the two related As genes would compromise plant growth and/or development. The proteins encoded by these genes play an important role in recapturing ammonium that is lost during photorespiration, a process that exceeds primary nitrogen assimilation by 10-fold (Keys et al., 1978). Although the enhanced assimilation of ammonium has been shown to increase photosynthesis (Fuentes et al., 2001) and accelerate growth (Oliveira et al., 2002), an impairment of this process may result in the accumulation of high and potentially toxic concentrations of ammonium (Gerendas et al., 1997; Wong et al., 2004). It should be mentioned that intragenic plants have not yet been exposed to the environmental stresses that are typical in the field. Such stresses include, for instance, drought, overwatering and infection, and are all known to enhance the formation of asparagine (Lea et al., 2007). The physiological significance of up-regulated asparagine biosynthesis is not yet fully understood, but it is possible that an inability to increase the concentrations of asparagine in tubers would, directly or indirectly, enhance stress sensitivity in the field.
Despite the efficacy of StAs1/2 gene silencing, intragenic tubers still contained 5%?25% of the asparagine that accumulated in untransformed potatoes. Some of this amino acid may have been synthesized through either rudimentary StAs1 and/or StAs2 activity or transamination of 2-oxosuccinamic acid (Joy, 1988). A more substantial proportion was probably produced in leaves for transport through the phloem to the tubers (Fischer et al., 1998). Given the similar phenotypes of intragenic plants and their untransformed counterparts, it is unlikely that the silencing construct has a strong effect on the biosynthesis of asparagine in leaves. An additional argument for this hypothesis comes from the poor foliar activity of the promoters of the silencing construct (Visser et al., 1991; C. Richael, unpubl. data).
The significance of asparagine as an important determinant of the acrylamide potential of tubers was not noted in earlier studies evaluating the effect of genotype on acrylamide levels (Williams, 2005; Viklund et al., 2008). This discrepancy highlights the importance of other factors that influence the formation of acrylamide. Such factors include, for instance, glycine concentration (Br?then et al., 2005), product matrix (Claeys et al., 2005), tuber moisture (Amrein et al., 2006), antioxidants (Zhang et al., 2007) and, most importantly, reducing sugars. The role played by each of these factors is variety dependent, which explains why asparagine concentration alone is not always a reliable predictor for the extent of acrylamide formation (Williams, 2005). Although the pSIM1256 Ranger Russet lines provided a suitable source of low-asparagine tubers for the production of French fries, they still yielded potato chips that contained relatively high levels of acrylamide. This result indicates that an impairment of asparagine biosynthesis is often necessary, but not always sufficient, to guarantee low levels of acrylamide formation during heat processing. The large amounts of reducing sugars that accumulate in cold-stored Ranger Russet tubers may accentuate reactions with compounds that represent alternative acrylamide precursors, such as glutamine (Mottram et al., 2002).
Our study demonstrated that low-asparagine Ranger Russet tubers that were cold stored at 4 ?C yielded potato chips that were still relatively high in acrylamide. This finding indicates that the dramatic reductions in asparagine levels accomplished through As1/2 gene silencing are not always sufficient to guarantee a low-acrylamide product. For chip production, it will still be necessary to either store tubers at higher temperatures (7?10 ?C) or to apply typical ?chip? varieties, such as Atlantic. Alternatively, it may be possible to retransform a low-asparagine Ranger Russet variety with constructs for reduced cold-induced sweetening. Such constructs could be designed to down-regulate the expression of the genes involved in starch degradation (Rommens et al., 2006) or to express the maize (Zea mays) Dof1 transcription factor gene (Yanagisawa et al., 2004) or the potato metabolic regulator SnRk1 (McKibbin et al., 2006).
The consumption of processed potato products contributes to approximately one-third of the average dietary intake of acrylamide (Boettcher et al., 2005). Thus, an eventual replacement of existing potatoes by low-asparagine varieties would lower the ingestion of acrylamide by approximately 30%. Even greater reductions could be accomplished by applying the described methods to wheat and coffee. In these cases, the As genes would have to be silenced in the endosperm.
In conclusion, our work has demonstrated that the heat-induced formation of acrylamide can be decreased by reducing the asparagine content in potato tubers. Preliminary data have indicated that this modification does not alter the normal agronomics of the crop. If supported by consumers, all-native fry products with very low levels of acrylamide could be offered as a new market choice within the next 5 years.
Gene expression levels were assessed by analysing expressed sequence tag data stored at the Gene Index Database, maintained by the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA (http://www.danafarber.org). Amino acid motifs associated with the functional activity of enzymes were analysed by position-specific iterated and pattern-hit initiated BLAST (Sch?ffer et al., 2001). Databases searched using BLASTN and TBLASTS included those maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD, USA (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The correlation coefficient between two variables was calculated according to Pearson (Gayen, 1951). Both the calculation of protein alignments and the visualization of cladograms were based on CLUSTALW (with penalties for opening and extending a gap set at 10.0 and 0.2, respectively). Protein structures were predicted using the PHYRE protein threading program version 2.0 (http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/~phyre/). The t-test was used to study whether the means of two groups were statistically significantly different from each other.
The DNA segment used to produce a multigene silencing construct contained 348-bp fragments of the StAs1 gene (coordinates 318?665 of GENBANK accession CK278037) and the StAs2 gene (coordinates 314?661 of GENBANK accession CK271149). The tuber-specific Gbss promoter represents coordinates 1138?1823 of GENBANK accession X83220. The Agp promoter is identical to coordinates 2183?4407 of GENBANK accession X96771. The basic P-DNA vector used has been described previously (Rommens et al., 2004).
Stock plants were maintained in Magenta boxes containing 40 mL half-strength M516 medium (PhytoTechnology, Shawnee Mission, KS, USA) with 3% sucrose and 2 g/L gelrite. Plants were transformed as described previously (Richael et al., 2008). Transformed plants were genotyped for the presence or absence of P-DNA, T-DNA and backbone DNA using a robust and reliable PCR method, explained elsewhere (Xin et al., 2003). The P-DNA copy number of intragenic lines was determined by isolating DNA using DNAzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), transferring Eco RI digests to positively charged membranes (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and hybridizing the membranes with a probe derived from the 0.8-kb DNA segment, which was employed to create the silencing construct and carried fragments from both the StAs1 and StAs2 genes, using the non-radioactive digoxigenin system (Roche Applied Science).
RNA was isolated from tubers using an RNAeasy Plant Mini Kit (No. 74904, Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA), following the manufacturer's recommendations. cDNA was synthesized from 0.5 ?g of total RNA in a 20-?L volume using an oligo dT primer and SuperscriptII RT (Invitrogen) at 42 ?C in 1 h. One microlitre of resulting cDNA was used as template in the following PCR: 25-?L volume containing 20 mM 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris)-HCl (pH 8.4), 50 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM of each deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), 0.2 ?M of each primer and 1.5 U Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen). The cycling protocol was as follows: 3 min at 95 ?C, followed by 33 cycles of 20 s at 95 ?C, 20 s at 57 ?C and 80 s at 72 ?C, with a final step of 2 min at 72 ?C. Nine microlitres of the amplification products were analysed by electrophoresis and visualized by ethidium bromide on a 1% agarose gel. Semi-quantitative PCR for the StAs2 gene was carried out with the pair of intron-spanning primers 5?-GGGATGCCATTGGCATTACAC and 5?-TGTACTGGCTCTGATACTGGTC, using Qiagen's one-step RT-PCR kit (catalogue number 210212), according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Intron-spanning primers for the internal control actin gene were 5?-AGTGGTCGTACCACCGGTATTGTG and 5?-ATGATCAGTGAGGTCACGACCTGC. Non-radioactive digoxigenin RNA gel blot hybridization was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (Roche Applied Science). A labelled 1.1-kb probe for the StAs2 gene was derived from a gene fragment amplified with the primer pair 5?-CTTGCTCATCAACGATTGGCAATAG and 5?-AGGTCGGATCATTTTCCATTCTG. The primers used to produce a 1.1-kb probe for the StAs1 gene were 5?-GGTTGATGACTGATGTCCCCTTTG and 5?-TAGTTAGCTCCTTATTGTGAGCTC.
Plants were grown for 3 months in 7.6 L pots in a glasshouse that was controlled for temperature (18 ?C minimum/27 ?C maximum) and light (16-h photoperiod with an intensity of approximately 1500 ?mol/m2/s). The specific gravities of the harvested tubers were determined by dividing the weight in air by the weight in water (Kleinkopf et al., 1987). For French fry production, the tubers were washed, blanched for 8 min at 74 ?C, cut into shoestring strips, dipped in a 1% sodium acid pyrophosphate solution at 71 ?C, dried at the same temperature, fried at 200 ?C for 45 s and frozen for 20 min at ?26 ?C, shaking the tray two to three times in the first 6 min. The processed fries were then finish-fried at 168 ?C for either 2 min 45 s (light colour) or 4 min (dark colour). Potato chips were produced by slicing fresh tubers to 1.0-mm thickness using an industrial slicer; after air drying, they were fried for 11 min at 170 ?C.
A glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent (Megazyme, Bray, Co. Wicklow, Ireland) was used to determine the glucose levels of cold-stored tubers. For amino acid analyses, tuber samples were extracted and analysed using an automated amino acid analyser according to the official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (http://www.aoac.org/omarev1/982-30.pdf). The total protein content was determined by grinding a transverse slice of approximately 0.5 cm across the middle of the tuber in liquid nitrogen with a mortar. A homogenate containing 250 mg of the ground powder in 0.5 mL of extraction buffer [25 mM Tris-acetate pH 8.5, 0.5 M NaCl, 5 mM phenylmethylsulphonylfluoride (PMSF)] was centrifuged at 12 000 g for 10 min. The protein concentration in the supernatant was then measured using the Bradford protein assay kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).
Colour was assessed using an E30-FP Agtron Process Analyser (Agtron, Reno, NV, USA), whereby a lighter colour is reflected by a higher number and values above 40 are generally considered to be acceptable. French fries were ground to a fine powder in liquid nitrogen; the powder was shipped on dry ice to Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA), where a combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to detect acrylamide at concentrations as low as 20 p.p.b., according to a method developed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/acrylami.html), adapted from an earlier method (Schuster, 1988).
We thank Rob Chretien and Fred Dalton for excellent technical assistance, and Scott Simplot and Bill Whitacre for fruitful discussions and support.
|Amrein TM,Limacher A,Conde-Petit B,Amado R,Escher F. Influence of thermal processing conditions on acrylamide generation and browning in a potato model systemJ. Agric. Food Chem. 2006;54:5910–5916. [pmid: 16881694]|
|Barber DS,Stevens S,LoPachin RM. Proteomic analysis of rat striatal synaptosomes during acrylamide intoxication at a low dose rateToxicol. Sci. 2007;100:156–167. [pmid: 17698512]|
|Benedito de Barber C,Prieto JA,Collar C. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of changes in free amino acids during wheat bread dough fermentationCereal Chem 1989;66:283–288.|
|Boettcher MI,Schettgen T,K?tting B,Pischetsrieder M,Angerer J. Mercapturic acids of acrylamide and glycidamide as biomarkers of the internal exposure to acrylamide in the general populationMutat. Res. 2005;580:167–176. [pmid: 15668118]|
|Br?then E,Kita A,Knutsen SH,Wicklund T. Addition of glycine reduces the content of acrylamide in cereal and potato productsJ. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:3259–3264. [pmid: 15826086]|
|Claeys WL,De Vleeschouwer K,Hendrickx ME. Quantifying the formation of carcinogens during food processing: acrylamideTrends Food Sci. Technol. 2005;16:181–193.|
|Dybing E,Farmer PB,Andersen M,Fennell TR,Lalljie SP,M?ller DJ,Olin S,Petersen BJ,Schlatter J,Scholz G,Scimeca JA,Slimani N,T?rnqvist M,Tuijtelaars S,Verger P. Human exposure and internal dose assessments of acrylamide in foodFood Chem. Toxicol. 2005;43:365–410. [pmid: 15680675]|
|Elder VA,Fulcher JG,Leung HK. United States Patent 7037540|
|Elmore JS,Mottram DS,Muttucumaru N,Dodson AT,Parry MA,Halford NG. Changes in free amino acids and sugars in potatoes due to sulfate fertilization and the effect on acrylamide formationJ. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55:5363–5366. [pmid: 17530773]|
|Fischer WN,Andr? B,Rentsch D,Krolkiewicz S,Tegeder M,Breitkreuz K,Frommer WB. Amino acid transport in plantsTrends Plant Sci 1998;3:188–195.|
|Friedman MA,Dulak LH,Stedham MA. A lifetime oncogenicity study in rats with acrylamideFundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1995;27:95–105. [pmid: 7589934]|
|Fuentes SI,Allen DJ,Ortiz-Lopez A,Hern?ndez G. Over-expression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase increases photosynthesis and growth at low nitrogen concentrationsJ. Exp. Bot. 2001;52:1071–1081. [pmid: 11432923]|
|Gayen AK. The frequency distribution of the product moment correlation coefficient in random samples of any size drawn from non-normal universesBiometrika 1951;38:219–247. [pmid: 14848124]|
|Gerendas J,Zhu Z,Bendixen R,Ratcliffe RG,Sattelmacher B. Physiological and biochemical processes related to ammonium toxicity in higher plantsZ. Pflanzenernaehr. Bodenkd. 1997;160:239–251.|
|Howie JK,Lin PY,Zyzak DV,Schafermeyer RG. United States Patent 6989167|
|Jackson AL,Bartz SR,Schelter J,Kobayashi SV,Burchard J,Mao M,Li B,Cavet G,Linsley PS. Expression profiling reveals off-target gene regulation by RNAiNat. Biotechnol. 2003;21:635–637. [pmid: 12754523]|
|Johnson KA,Gorzinski SJ,Bodner KM,Campbell RA,Wolf CH,Friedman MA,Mast RW. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in the drinking water of Fischer 344 ratsToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1986;85:154–168. [pmid: 3764902]|
|Joy KW. Ammonia, glutamine and asparagine: a carbon?nitrogen interfaceCan. J. Bot. 1988;66:2103–2109.|
|Keys AJ,Bird IF,Cornelius MJ,Lea PJ,Wallsgrove RM,Miflin BJ. Photorespiratory nitrogen cycleNature 1978;275:741–743.|
|Kleinkopf GE,Westermann DT,Wille MJ,Kleinschmidt GD. Specific gravity of Russet Burbank potatoesAm. Potato J. 1987;64:579–587.|
|Koch W,Kwart M,Laubner M,Heineke D,Stransky H,Frommer WB,Tegeder M. Reduced amino acid content in transgenic potato tubers due to antisense inhibition of the leaf H+/amino acid symporter StAAP1Plant J 2003;33:211–220. [pmid: 12535336]|
|Lam HM,Wong P,Chan HK,Yam KM,Chen L,Chow CM,Coruzzi GM. Overexpression of the ASN1 gene enhances nitrogen status in seeds of ArabidopsisPlant Physiol 2003;132:926–935. [pmid: 12805621]|
|Larsen TM,Boehlein SK,Schuster SM,Richards NG,Thoden JB,Holden HM,Rayment I. Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B: a short journey from substrate to productBiochemistry 1999;38:16 146–16 157.|
|Lea PJ,Sodek L,Parry MAJ,Shewry PR,Halford NG. Asparagine in plantsAnn. Appl. Biol. 2007;150:1–26.|
|Marchler-Bauer A,Anderson JB,Derbyshire MK,DeWeese-Scott C,Gonzales NR,Gwadz M,Hao L,He S,Hurwitz DI,Jackson JD,Ke Z,Krylov D,Lanczycki CJ,Liebert CA,Liu C,Lu F,Lu S,Marchler GH,Mullokandov M,Song JS,Thanki N,Yamashita RA,Yin JJ,Zhang D,Bryant SH. CDD: a conserved domain database for interactive domain family analysisNucleic Acids Res 2007;35:D237–D240. [pmid: 17135202]|
|Martins C,Oliveira NG,Pingarilho M,Gamboa da Costa G,Martins V,Marques MM,Beland FA,Churchwell MI,Doerge DR,Rueff J,Gaspar JF. Cytogenetic damage induced by acrylamide and glycidamide in mammalian cells: correlation with specific glycidamide?DNA adductsToxicol. Sci. 2007;95:383–390. [pmid: 17088317]|
|Matth?us B,Haase NU,Vosmann K. Factors affecting the concentration of acrylamide during deep-fat frying of potatoesEur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2004;106:793–801.|
|Mazzafera P. Chemical composition of defective coffee beansFood Chem 1999;64:547–554.|
|McKibbin RS,Muttucumaru N,Paul MJ,Powers SJ,Burrell MM,Coates S,Purcell PC,Tiessen A,Geigenberger P,Halford NG. Production of high-starch, low-glucose potatoes through over-expression of the metabolic regulator SnRK1Plant Biotechnol. J. 2006;4:409–418. [pmid: 17177806]|
|Mottram DS,Wedzicha BL,Dodson AT. Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reactionNature 2002;419:448–449. [pmid: 12368844]|
|Muller-Rober B,La Cognata U,Sonnewald U,Willmitzer L. A truncated version of an ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase promoter from potato specifies guard cell-selective expression in transgenic plantsPlant Cell 1994;6:601–612. [pmid: 8038601]|
|Oliveira IC,Brears T,Knight TJ,Clark A,Coruzzi GM. Overexpression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase. Relation to nitrogen, light, and photorespirationPlant Physiol 2002;129:1170–1180. [pmid: 12114571]|
|Richael CM,Kalyaeva M,Chretien RC,Yan H,Adimulam S,Stivison A,Weeks JT,Rommens CM. Cytokinin vectors mediate marker-free and backbone-free plant transformationTransgenic Res. 2008 DOI: 10.1007/S11248-008-9175-6|
|Rommens CM,Humara JM,Ye J,Yan H,Richael C,Zhang L,Perry R,Swords K. Crop improvement through modification of the plant's own genomePlant Physiol 2004;135:421–431. [pmid: 15133156]|
|Rommens CM,Ye J,Richael C,Swords K. Improving potato storage and processing characteristics through all-native DNA transformationJ. Agric. Food Chem. 2006;54:9882–9887. [pmid: 17177515]|
|Rydberg P,Eriksson S,Tareke E,Karlsson P,Ehrenberg L,T?rnqvist M. Factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foodsAdv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2005;561:317–328. [pmid: 16438308]|
|Sch?ffer AA,Aravind L,Madden TL,Shavirin S,Spouge JL,Wolf YI,Koonin EV,Altschul SF. Improving the accuracy of PSI-BLAST protein database searches with composition-based statistics and other refinementsNucleic Acids Res 2001;29:2994–3005. [pmid: 11452024]|
|Schuster R. Determination of amino acids in biological, pharmaceutical, plant and food samples by automated precolumn derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatographyJ. Chromatogr. 1988;431:271–284. [pmid: 3243784]|
|Ta TC,Joy KW,Ireland RJ. Role of asparagine in the photorespiratory nitrogen metabolism of pea leavesPlant Physiol 1985;78:334–337. [pmid: 16664240]|
|Talley EA,Fitzpatrick TJ,Porter WL. Chemical composition of potatoes. VIII. Effect of variety, location, and year of growth on the content of nitrogen compoundsAm. Potato J. 1970;47:231–244.|
|Thompson JF,Pollard JK,Steward FC. Investigations of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen metabolism in plants. III ?-aminobutyric acid in plants, with special reference to the potato tuber and a new procedure for isolating amino acids other than ?-amino acidsPlant Physiol 1953;28:401–414. [pmid: 16654556]|
|Viklund G,Olsson K,Sj?holm I,Skog K. Variety and storage conditions affect the precursor content and amount of acrylamide in potato crispsJ. Sci. Food Agric. 2008;88:305–312.|
|Visser RG,Stolte A,Jacobsen E. Expression of a chimaeric granule-bound starch synthase-GUS gene in transgenic potato plantsPlant Mol. Biol. 1991;17:691–699. [pmid: 1912493]|
|Vivanti V,Finotti E,Friedman M. Level of acrylamide precursors asparagine, fructose, glucose, and sucrose in potatoes sold at retail in Italy and in the United StatesJ. Food Sci. 2006;71:C81–C85.|
|Webb RE,Wilson DR,Shumaker JR,Graves B,Henningor MR,Watts J,Frank JA,Murphy HJ. Atlantic: a new potato variety with high solids, good processing quality, and resistance to pestsAm. Potato J. 1978;55:141–145.|
|Williams JSE. Influence of variety and processing conditions on acrylamide levels in fried potato crispsFood Chem 2005;90:875–881.|
|Wong HK,Chan HK,Coruzzi GM,Lam HM. Correlation of ASN2 gene expression with ammonium metabolism in ArabidopsisPlant Physiol 2004;134:332–338. [pmid: 14671018]|
|Xin Z,Velten JP,Oliver MJ,Burke JJ. High-throughput DNA extraction method suitable for PCRBiotechniques 2003;34:820–824. [pmid: 12703307]|
|Yan H,Chretien R,Ye J,Rommens CM. New construct approaches for efficient gene silencing in plantsPlant Physiol 2006;141:1508–1518. [pmid: 16766670]|
|Yanagisawa S,Akiyama A,Kisaka H,Uchimiya H,Miwa T. Metabolic engineering with Dof1 transcription factor in plants: improved nitrogen assimilation and growth under low-nitrogen conditionsProc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2004;101:7833–7838. [pmid: 15136740]|
|Zhang Y,Chen J,Zhang X,Wu X,Zhang Y. Addition of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) effectively reduces acrylamide formation in potato crisps and French friesJ. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55:523–528. [pmid: 17227088]|
Sensory evaluation of French fries prepared from both untransformed and intragenic Ranger Russet tubers stored for 1 month at 4 ?C prior to processing. Tests were performed by a panel of eight professionally trained experts, who sampled French fries at the optimum time of 3 min. Data denote the average marking of six assessments ? standard deviation on a nine-point scale (9, excellent; 1, poor)
|Texture||Crispness||4.7 ? 0.5||4.8 ? 0.1||5.0 ? 0.1||4.5 ? 0.2||5.2 ? 0.1|
|Mouthfeel||6.3 ? 0.3||5.8 ? 0.1||5.8 ? 0.3||3.8 ? 0.5||6.2 ? 0.2|
|Mealiness||5.8 ? 0.3||6.2 ? 0.1||6.2 ? 0.2||5.2 ? 0.1||5.8 ? 0.2|
|Variation||6.4 ? 0.3||6.2 ? 0.1||6.3 ? 0.3||6.3 ? 0.1||6.5 ? 0.3|
|Taste||Caramelized||6.6 ? 0.4||7.0 ? 0.0||6.3 ? 0.3||5.3 ? 0.4||5.8 ? 0.2|
|Fresh-fried||2.9 ? 0.2||3.3 ? 0.4||3.0 ? 0.0||3.3 ? 0.4||3.3 ? 0.4|
|Aroma||5.9 ? 0.7||6.0 ? 0.0||5.2 ? 0.2||5.3 ? 0.6||5.5 ? 0.4|
Keywords: acrylamide, intragenic, plant biotechnology, potato.
Previous Document: Pediatric kidney transplantation is safe and available for patients with urological anomalies as wel...
Next Document: Engineered native pathways for high kaempferol and caffeoylquinate production in potato.