Document Detail

Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22337912     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
CONTEXT: Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant.
METHODS: We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition.
RESULTS: Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet.
CONCLUSIONS: Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.
Mandy B Belfort; Elizabeth N Pearce; Lewis E Braverman; Xuemei He; Rosalind S Brown
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2012-02-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism     Volume:  97     ISSN:  1945-7197     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-11     Completed Date:  2012-06-11     Revised Date:  2013-06-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375362     Medline TA:  J Clin Endocrinol Metab     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  E632-6     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Newborn Medicine, Hunnewell 438, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Diet / adverse effects*
Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / chemistry
Food, Formulated / analysis*
Food, Fortified / analysis
Infant Formula / chemistry*
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
Iodine / administration & dosage*,  analysis
Milk, Human / chemistry
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritive Value
Parenteral Nutrition Solutions / chemistry*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fat Emulsions, Intravenous; 0/Parenteral Nutrition Solutions; 7553-56-2/Iodine

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