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Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21839085     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: (1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and (2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. D. longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange juice and water demonstrating that there while diluted orange juice provided nutrition the addition of guava created toxicity. Given the differences in fruit-food quality, adult opiine food sources would not be obtainable at all oviposition sites and in the case of guava, more additional sites and foraging for food than previously postulated may be required.
Authors:
Charles Stuhl; Lizette Cicero Jurado; John Sivinski; Peter Teal; Stephen Lapointe; Beatriz Jordão Paranhos; Martín Aluja
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-8-3
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of insect physiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1611     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-8-15     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985080R     Medline TA:  J Insect Physiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL, USA.
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