Document Detail

Long-term treatment with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment reduces age-dependent impairment in discrimination and reversal learning in beagle dogs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15130670     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The effects of long-term treatment with both antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment were studied as part of a longitudinal investigation of cognitive aging in beagle dogs. Baseline performance on a battery of cognitive tests was used to assign 48 aged dogs (9-12 years) into four cognitively equivalent groups, of 12 animals per group: Group CC (control food-control environment), group CE (control food-enriched environment); Group AC (antioxidant fortified food-control environment); Group AE (fortified food-enriched environment). We also tested a group of young dogs fed the control food and a second group fed the fortified food. Both groups of young dogs received a program of behavioral enrichment. To evaluate the effects of the interventions on cognition after 1 year, the dogs were tested on a size discrimination learning task and subsequently on a size discrimination reversal learning task. Both tasks showed age-sensitivity, with old dogs performing more poorly than young dogs. Both tasks were also improved by both the fortified food and the behavioral enrichment. However, in both instances the treatment effects largely reflected improved performance in the combined treatment group. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antioxidants in attenuating age-dependent cognitive decline is dependent on behavioral and environmental experience.
Norton W Milgram; Elizabeth Head; Steven C Zicker; Candace Ikeda-Douglas; Heather Murphey; Bruce A Muggenberg; Christina T Siwak; P Dwight Tapp; Stephen R Lowry; Carl W Cotman
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Experimental gerontology     Volume:  39     ISSN:  0531-5565     ISO Abbreviation:  Exp. Gerontol.     Publication Date:  2004 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-05-07     Completed Date:  2004-10-05     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0047061     Medline TA:  Exp Gerontol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  753-65     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont., Canada M1C 1A4.
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MeSH Terms
Aging / physiology*
Antioxidants / administration & dosage*
Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage
Behavior, Animal / physiology*
Carnitine / administration & dosage
Discrimination Learning / physiology*
Food, Fortified
Learning Disorders / physiopathology,  prevention & control*
Longitudinal Studies
Models, Biological
Reversal Learning / physiology*
Thioctic Acid / administration & dosage
Vitamin E / administration & dosage,  blood
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antioxidants; 1406-18-4/Vitamin E; 50-81-7/Ascorbic Acid; 541-15-1/Carnitine; 62-46-4/Thioctic Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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