Document Detail

Long-term memory for the terrorist attack of September 11: flashbulb memories, event memories, and the factors that influence their retention.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19397377     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas others demonstrate accelerated forgetting. This article indicates that (a) the rate of forgetting for flashbulb memories and event memory (memory for details about the event itself) slows after a year, (b) the strong emotional reactions elicited by flashbulb events are remembered poorly, worse than nonemotional features such as where and from whom one learned of the attack, and (c) the content of flashbulb and event memories stabilizes after a year. The results are discussed in terms of community memory practices.
William Hirst; Elizabeth A Phelps; Randy L Buckner; Andrew E Budson; Alexandru Cuc; John D E Gabrieli; Marcia K Johnson; Cindy Lustig; Keith B Lyle; Mara Mather; Robert Meksin; Karen J Mitchell; Kevin N Ochsner; Daniel L Schacter; Jon S Simons; Chandan J Vaidya
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of experimental psychology. General     Volume:  138     ISSN:  0096-3445     ISO Abbreviation:  J Exp Psychol Gen     Publication Date:  2009 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-04-28     Completed Date:  2009-06-26     Revised Date:  2013-06-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7502587     Medline TA:  J Exp Psychol Gen     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  161-76     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
(c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Department of Psychology, New School for Social Research, New York, NY 10011, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Data Collection
Follow-Up Studies
Mental Recall
Perceptual Distortion
Reality Testing
Retention (Psychology)*
September 11 Terrorist Attacks / psychology*
Grant Support
R01 MH066972-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01-MH0066972/MH/NIMH NIH HHS

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