Document Detail

Long-term effects of chemical weapons on respiratory tract in Iraq-Iran war victims living in Babol (North of Iran).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12485587     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In the Iraq-Iran war (1981-1989), extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas caused high mortality, morbidity, injuries, and chronic side effects in vital organs, especially the respiratory tract. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects on respiratory tract of victims. Two hundred and twenty victims were referred from the Mostazafan and Janbazan Foundation of Babol from 1994 to 1998. Complete histories, physical examinations, chest X-rays, and PFTs were performed. Nearly all the victims complained of cough, dyspnea, and suffocation. Hemoptysis was found in 6 victims. In 4 patients, respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles was observed. Two-thirds of the subjects had wheezing and coarse rale. For the other third, physical examination revealed no abnormal finding. Radiographic findings were mostly normal. Spirometry revealed an obstructive pattern in all patients and PFT revealed mostly normal and restrictive patterns. The shortlist time from exposure to study was 7 years and the longest was 13 years. Most patients reported mustard gas exposure and a few of them did not know what type of gas exposure they had. The clinical evaluations, radiography, and PFTs revealed that the most prevalent effects of chemical weapons on respiratory tract were chronic obstructive lung disease, presenting as many types of obstructive involvement.
Kh Bijani; A A Moghadamnia
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Ecotoxicology and environmental safety     Volume:  53     ISSN:  0147-6513     ISO Abbreviation:  Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.     Publication Date:  2002 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-12-17     Completed Date:  2003-04-01     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7805381     Medline TA:  Ecotoxicol Environ Saf     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  422-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
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MeSH Terms
Chemical Warfare Agents / adverse effects*
Dermatologic Agents / adverse effects*
Environmental Exposure*
Epidemiologic Studies
Hemoptysis / etiology
Iran / epidemiology
Middle Aged
Mustard Gas / adverse effects*
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / chemically induced*,  epidemiology
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Sounds / etiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chemical Warfare Agents; 0/Dermatologic Agents; 505-60-2/Mustard Gas

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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