Document Detail


Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: selected mechanisms of action on bone.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20600307     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Evidence presented over the past 20 years has shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), especially the n-3 fatty acids such as eicospentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial for bone health. Some studies in humans indicate that LCPUFAs can increase bone formation, affect peak bone mass in adolescents and reduce bone loss as measured using bone mineral densitometry. The cellular mechanisms of action of the LCPUFAs, however, are complex and involve modulation of fatty acid metabolites such as prostaglandins, resolvins and protectins, several signalling pathways, cytokines and growth factors. LCPUFAs affect receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ (RANK), a receptor found on the osteoclast, the cell causing bone resorption, which controls osteoclast formation. Lipoxygenase (LOX) generated lipid mediators (resolvins, lipoxins, protectins and docosanoids) have both anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activities. Both resolvins and lipoxins inhibit inflammation-induced bone resorption. Arachidonic acid significantly upregulates inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in human osteoblast-like cells, thereby possibly enhancing osteoclastic activity. The protective effect of EPA on osteoblastogenesis could be mediated by the biphasic cross-talk between PGE(2) and NO production involving COX-2 and iNOS pathways. Other mediators of osteoblast maturation include PPARα ligands such as linoleic acid and possibly DHA in association with bone morphogenic proteins. Since DHA is a weaker ligand for PPARγ, more uncommitted mesenchymal stem cells are thought to differentiate into osteoblasts rather than adipocytes. This review addresses selected cellular mechanisms that may explain the beneficial effects of the LCPUFAs on bone.
Authors:
M C Kruger; M Coetzee; M Haag; H Weiler
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2010-06-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Progress in lipid research     Volume:  49     ISSN:  1873-2194     ISO Abbreviation:  Prog. Lipid Res.     Publication Date:  2010 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-09-10     Completed Date:  2011-01-13     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7900832     Medline TA:  Prog Lipid Res     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  438-49     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. m.c.kruger@massey.ac.nz
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Bone and Bones / cytology,  drug effects*,  physiology
Cell Differentiation / drug effects
Cytokines / metabolism
Dietary Fats / pharmacology
Fatty Acids / metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / chemistry*,  pharmacology*
Humans
Mesenchymal Stem Cells / drug effects,  physiology
Osteoblasts / drug effects,  physiology
Osteoclasts / drug effects,  physiology
Osteogenesis / drug effects
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / metabolism
Prostaglandins / secretion
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cytokines; 0/Dietary Fats; 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; 0/Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors; 0/Prostaglandins

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