Document Detail

Long-term exposure to air pollution and vascular damage in young adults.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20407379     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has recently been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. There are, however, very limited data in healthy young people. We examined the association between air pollutants and indicators of vascular damage in a cohort of young adults. METHODS: We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults study. We estimated exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), black smoke, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and various traffic indicators for participants' 2000 home addresses. Exposure for the year 2000 was estimated by land-use regression models incorporating regional background annual air pollution levels, land-use variables, population densities, and traffic intensities on nearby roads. Outcomes were common carotid artery intima-media thickness (n = 745), aortic pulse wave velocity (n = 524), and augmentation index (n = 729). RESULTS: Exposure contrasts were substantial for NO2, SO2, and black smoke (5th-95th percentiles = 19.7 to 44.9, 2.5 to 5.2, and 8.6 to 19.4 microg/m3, respectively) and smaller for PM2.5 (16.5 to 19.9 microg/m3). The variability of carotid artery intima-media thickness was less than for pulse wave velocity and especially augmentation index (5-95th percentiles = 0.42 to 0.58 mm, 4.9 to 7.4 m/s and -12.3% to 27.3%, respectively). No associations were found between any of the pollutants or traffic indicators and carotid artery intima-media thickness, although PM2.5 effect estimates were in line with previous studies. We observed a 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.1% to 8.0%) increase in pulse wave velocity and a 37.6% (2.2% to 72.9%) increase in augmentation index associated with a 25 microg/m3 increase in NO2, and a 5.3% (0.1% to 10.4%) increase in pulse wave velocity with a 5 microg/m3 increase in SO2. PM2.5 and black smoke were not associated with either of these 2 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution may accelerate arterial-wall stiffening in young adults. Small outcome variability and lack of residential mobility data may have limited the power to detect an effect on intima-media thickness.
Virissa Lenters; Cuno S Uiterwaal; Rob Beelen; Michiel L Bots; Paul Fischer; Bert Brunekreef; Gerard Hoek
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)     Volume:  21     ISSN:  1531-5487     ISO Abbreviation:  Epidemiology     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-06-11     Completed Date:  2010-09-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9009644     Medline TA:  Epidemiology     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  512-20     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollution / adverse effects*
Arteriosclerosis / chemically induced
Blood Pressure / drug effects
Blood Vessels / drug effects*
Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced
Carotid Artery, Common / drug effects,  pathology
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
Linear Models
Nitrogen Dioxide / adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Smoke / adverse effects
Sulfur Dioxide / adverse effects
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Smoke; 10102-44-0/Nitrogen Dioxide; 7446-09-5/Sulfur Dioxide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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