|Localization of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase IIgamma in kidney to a membrane trafficking compartment within specialized cells of the nephron.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 18753295 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|PIP4Ks (type II phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinases) are phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) 4-kinases, believed primarily to regulate cellular PtdIns5P levels. In this study, we investigated the expression, localization, and associated biological activity of the least-studied PIP4K isoform, PIP4Kgamma. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that compared with PIP4Kalpha and PIP4Kbeta, PIP4Kgamma is expressed at exceptionally high levels in the kidney, especially the cortex and outer medulla. A specific antibody was raised to PIP4Kgamma, and immunohistochemistry with this and with antibodies to specific kidney cell markers showed a restricted expression, primarily distributed in epithelial cells in the thick ascending limb and in the intercalated cells of the collecting duct. In these cells, PIP4Kgamma had a vesicular appearance, and transfection of kidney cell lines revealed a partial Golgi localization (primarily the matrix of the cis-Golgi) with an additional presence in an unidentified vesicular compartment. In contrast to PIP4Kalpha, bacterially expressed recombinant PIP4Kgamma was completely inactive but did have the ability to associate with active PIP4Kalpha in vitro. Overall our data suggest that PIP4Kgamma may have a function in the regulation of vesicular transport in specialized kidney epithelial cells.|
|Jonathan H Clarke; Piers C Emson; Robin F Irvine|
Related Documents :
|22539765 - Microrna-mediated in vitro and in vivo direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to c...
15813955 - Soluble guanylyl cyclase appears in a specific subset of periglomerular cells in the ol...
9357575 - A new method for the enrichment of single renal proximal tubular cells and their first ...
2179625 - Glomerular mesangial cell migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor.
10666075 - Electrical interactions between a real ventricular cell and an anisotropic two-dimensio...
10419555 - Selective killing of cancer cells based on loss of heterozygosity and normal variation ...
|Type: Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Date: 2008-08-27|
|Title: American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Volume: 295 ISSN: 1931-857X ISO Abbreviation: Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. Publication Date: 2008 Nov|
|Created Date: 2008-11-06 Completed Date: 2009-02-09 Revised Date: 2013-06-05|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 100901990 Medline TA: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Country: United States|
|Languages: eng Pagination: F1422-30 Citation Subset: IM|
|Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK. email@example.com|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Aquaporin 1 / genetics, metabolism
Autoantigens / genetics, metabolism
Golgi Apparatus / enzymology, metabolism
In Situ Hybridization
Isoenzymes / genetics, metabolism
Kidney / cytology, enzymology*, metabolism
Kidney Cortex / cytology, enzymology, metabolism
Kidney Medulla / cytology, enzymology, metabolism
Loop of Henle / cytology, enzymology, metabolism
Membrane Proteins / genetics, metabolism
Mice, Inbred Strains
Mucoproteins / genetics, metabolism
Nephrons / cytology, enzymology*, metabolism
Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / chemistry, genetics, metabolism*
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transport Vesicles / enzymology*, metabolism
|WT063581//Wellcome Trust; //Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council|
|0/Aqp1 protein, mouse; 0/Autoantigens; 0/Golgin subfamily A member 2; 0/Isoenzymes; 0/Membrane Proteins; 0/Mucoproteins; 0/UMOD protein, human; 0/Umod protein, mouse; 0/Uromodulin; 146410-94-8/Aquaporin 1; EC 2.7.1.-/Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); EC 220.127.116.11/phosphatidylinositol phosphate 4-kinase|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Am J Physiol Renal Physiol
Journal ID (publisher-id): ajprenal
Publisher: American Physiological Society
Copyright ? 2008, American Physiological Society
open-access: This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to www.the-aps.org/publications/journals/funding_addendum_policy.htm.
Received Day: 15 Month: 5 Year: 2008
Accepted Day: 24 Month: 8 Year: 2008
Print publication date: Month: 11 Year: 2008
Electronic publication date: Day: 27 Month: 8 Year: 2008
pmc-release publication date: Day: 1 Month: 11 Year: 2008
Volume: 295 Issue: 5
First Page: F1422 Last Page: F1430
Publisher Id: F-90310-2008
PubMed Id: 18753295
|Localization of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase II? in kidney to a membrane trafficking compartment within specialized cells of the nephron|
|Jonathan H. Clarke1|
|Piers C. Emson2|
|Robin F. Irvine1|
1Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge and 2Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom
|Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: J. H. Clarke, Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
POLYPHOSPHOINOSITIDES are quantitatively minor lipid components of cells and are increasingly being recognized as making diverse and important contributions to many aspects of cell physiology, for example, in ion channel regulation, membrane trafficking, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal rearrangement (for reviews see Refs. 10, 18, 32, 40, 46). Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) is the most recent polyphosphoinositide to be found, first identified as the primary substrate for the type II PtdInsP kinases (33). Here these enzymes are referred to as PIP4Ks (consistent with their substrate specificity as PtdIns5P 4-kinases), although it should be noted that gene nomenclature still refers to them as PIP5K2s. As a minor component of cell polyphosphoinositides, it is suggested that PtdIns5P either provides a specific lipid pool for a (minor) localized production of PtdIns(4,5)P2 or that it is a signaling molecule in its own right. Suggested functions include nuclear responses (9, 13), insulin signaling, and protein kinase regulation (5, 22, 31, 38) and phosphatase activation (39).
PtdIns5P can be synthesized from PtdIns by a PtdIns 5-kinase (37) or by dephosphorylation from PtdIns(3,5)P2 or PtdIns(4,5)P2 (28, 41?43). The main route of PtdIns5P metabolism is via PIP4Ks, which are represented in vertebrates by three characterized isoforms, ?, ?, and ?. PIP4K? is found predominantly in the cytosol and can be recruited to the plasma membrane (15, 45). PIP4K? is localized to the nucleus (3, 7, 36), where there is evidence that it regulates PtdIns5P levels (21), probably in concert with type I PtdIns(4,5)P2 4-phosphatase (47), although it has also been seen to associate with the cytosolic TNF receptor (6). As cellular PtdIns5P levels are modified in response to stress (21, 47), to bacterial infection (28), to receptor-mediated signaling (26, 45), and during cell cycle progression (8), the ability of the PIP4Ks to localize to specific compartments, or to shuttle between them, may be intrinsic to their function.
The third isoform, PIP4K? (19), has not yet been associated with a cellular function, either related to production of PtdIns(4,5)P2 or to the attenuation of PtdIns5P. In the present study, we have extensively characterized the tissue distribution of all of the PIP4K isoforms and found an exceptionally high level of PIP4K? expression in the kidney. We have further investigated the localization within this organ of PIP4K?, using a specific antibody to this isoform, and found that it is remarkably confined to specific cell populations, where it is localized to vesicular structures. Transfection experiments with PIP4K? suggest that these may be derived from the Golgi apparatus. Our results suggest that PIP4K? may be involved in vesicle trafficking in specific kidney cells and that this would imply a specialized function for this enzyme.
PIP5K2 genes were amplified from a whole human brain marathon-ready cDNA library (Clontech Laboratories, Mountain View, CA) using gene-specific primers (PIP5K2A forward: 5?-ATGGCGACCCCCGGCAACCTAGGGTC-3? and reverse: 5?-TTACGTCAAGATGTGGCCAATAAAGTC-3?; PIP5K2B forward: 5?-ATGTCGTCCAACTGCACCAGCACCAC-3? and reverse: 5?-CTACGTCAGGATGTTGGACATAAAC-3?; and PIP5K2C forward: 5?-ATGGCGTCCTCCTCGGTCCCACCAG-3? and reverse: 5?-TTAGGCAAAGATGTTGGTAATAAAATC-3?). PCR products were cloned, via incorporated HindIII and BamHI restriction sites, into appropriate plasmid vectors. Recombinant protein expressed from Escherichia coli harboring PIP5K2s in pET-32a (Novagen, Madison, WI) was purified using TALON metal affinity resin (Clontech) and cleaved with enterokinase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA). Endotoxin-free plasmid from bacterial clones harboring PIP5K2s in pEGFP-C1 (Clontech) was prepared (DNA extraction kit; Qiagen, Huntsville, AL). All constructs were confirmed by sequencing.
HeLa, HEK 293, COS-7, and NRK cells were maintained in DMEM (GIBCO, Paisley, UK) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 U/ml penicillin, and 50 ?g/ml streptomycin. Cells were transiently transfected with plasmid constructs for 24 h with TransFectin reagent (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA), using the manufacturer's protocol. Cell lysates for immunoprecipitation were made by suspending cells in cold lysis buffer (PBS with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EDTA, 5 mM EGTA, and 100 ?l/ml Sigma P8340 protease inhibitor cocktail) and centrifuging at 10,000 g for 10 min at 4?C.
Protein and mRNA samples were prepared from adult mouse tissues obtained post mortem and immediately frozen on dry ice after collection. Tissues (50 mg) for mRNA extraction were pulsed in lysing matrix D tubes (Qbiogene) with 1 ml Tri-Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich, Poole, UK) on a Hybaid Ribolyser. Samples were purified (RNeasy kit; Qiagen, and Turbo DNase; Ambion, Austin, TX), and cDNA libraries were constructed by RT-PCR (Sprint Powerscript kit; Clontech). Protein lysates were prepared in RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100, 1% deoxycholic acid, and 0.1% SDS) with 10 mM tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 10 mM sodium fluoride, 17.5 mM ?-glycerophosphate, and 100 ?l/ml Sigma P8340 protease inhibitor cocktail, using 10?15 strokes in a 5 ml dounce homogenizer. Cell debris was cleared by centrifugation at 2,900 g for 20 min at 4?C, and lysates were clarified by further centrifugation at 29,000 g for 45 min at 4?C. Kidney tissue was dissected under a binocular microscope to produce cortical and medullary samples. Tissues for immunochemistry from perfused mice were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, sectioned on a Leica cryostat at ?20?C, mounted on slides, and stored at ?80?C.
Singleplex quantitative PCR was carried out using specific primers for each PIP5K2 gene, designed to the 3?-untranslated region (PIP5K2A forward: 5?-AAGAGTCTGATGCCAAGAACCTGT-3? and reverse: 5?-TGCAGTGCAACTTAAGGATGGTAA-3?; PIP5K2B forward: 5?-CATCCTCACAGAAGAACATGGC-3? and reverse: 5?-CCTGGTCATTCACCGTCTCA-3?; and PIP5K2C forward: 5?-CATCTTCCACTGCTAATGTGTCTCC-5? and reverse: 5?-TTGAGTTATGGCTCTGACTCCTCTCT-3?). Three cDNA libraries were constructed for each tissue tested and analyzed in triplicate. PCR amplification was performed in a 96-well plate using SYBR Green I master mix (Applied Biosystems, Warrington, UK), following the manufacturer's protocol. Reactions were heated (50?C for 2 min, 95?C for 10 min) and cycled 40 times (95?C for 15 sec, 60?C for 1 min) on an ABI Prism 7700 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems). Dissociation curves for each primer set indicated a single product, and no-template controls were negative after 40 cycles. Reactions using RNA as template were negative, showing that the preparations were free from genomic DNA contamination. Primer concentrations were chosen to give threshold cycle (CT) values of 20?25. Validation experiments showed equivalent relative amplification efficiencies between each PIP5K2 gene and a primer set for mouse ?-actin (forward: 5?-GACGATATCGCTGCGCTGGT-3? and reverse: 5?-CCACGATGGAGGGGAATA-3?), and ?CT values were analyzed using the comparative CT method (23).
Two oligonucleotide probes were designed to the PIP5K2C sequence, one in the 3?-untranslated region (5?-GACTGGGTGGATTGAGTTATGGCTCTGACTCCTCT-3?) and one in the coding sequence (5?-ATAGGAGATAAGGAAACGGCCATCACTGCCTTCAG-3?), which only identified PIP5K2C when BLAT searched against the European Molecular Biology Laboratory mouse database. Probes were 3?-tail-labeled with [35S]dATP (NEN, Hounslow, UK), hybridized with 20-?m mouse tissue sections and autoradiographed for 5 wk, as described previously (12). Slides of interest were dipped in autoradiographic emulsion and after development (12 wk) were counterstained with hematoxylin and eosin, and images were captured using an Axioskop II light microscope.
A peptide (amino acids 333?352), unique to the variable region of the mouse PIP4K? sequence, was used to raise a custom polyclonal antibody (NeoMPS, San Diego, CA), which was subsequently purified from rabbit serum by affinity matrix chromatography. Surface plasmon resonance analysis was carried out on a Biacore 3000 instrument (GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Bucks, UK) using two optical biosensor chips: carboxymethylated dextran preimmobilized with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) or streptavidin (SA). Purified PIP4K recombinant protein and control 6xHis tag protein were adsorbed to the NTA chip at concentrations of 1?9 ng/mm2. Anti-PIP4K? antibody was passed over the chip at 10 ?g/ml to detect specific interaction, and data were normalized to the nonspecific control. Biotinylated anti-PIP4K? and control antibodies were bound to the SA chip, to which PIP4K? was then applied at saturating levels, to show specific antibody-binding interaction.
Protein samples (50 ?g) were resolved on 10% polyacrylamide gels, and Western blots were carried out as described previously (16), using anti-PIP4K? at 0.5 ?g/ml. Anti-PIP4K? was neutralized by saturating with excess of antigenic peptide for 30 min. Other antibodies used in this study were diluted to the manufacturers recommendations: goat polyclonal antibodies to aquaporin 1 (AQP1), aquaporin 2 (AQP2) and Tamm-Horsfall protein, and polyclonal rabbit antibodies to lgp110 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA); rabbit polyclonal antibodies to TGN38 were a gift from G. Banting; mouse Mabs to EEA1, BiP, and GM130, and rabbit polyclonal antibodies to p115 (BD Transduction Laboratories, Oxford, UK); rabbit polyclonal antibodies to calreticulin (Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA); mouse Mabs to tubulin (Sigma-Aldrich); and goat polyclonal antibodies to golgin160 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies to catalase, p58K, mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and mannosidase II (Abcam, Cambridge, UK). Alexa Fluor 568 phalloidin and TO-PRO-3 iodide were used to directly stain actin and DNA (Molecular Probes, Paisley, UK). Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies and SuperSignal West Dura substrate were used for Western blotting (Pierce Protein Research Products, Rockford, IL), and Alexa dye-conjugated secondary antibodies were used for fluorescence microscopy (Molecular Probes). Immunoprecipitation with anti-PIP4K? rat Mabs (16) and protein G-Sepharose (GE Healthcare) was carried out for 16 h at 4?C. Beads were washed in cold PBS and used directly for Western blotting or kinase assay.
Mammalian cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged constructs were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 30 min on ice. Cells were permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 10 min and blocked with 4% fish skin gelatin (Sigma-Aldrich) in PBS for 30 min and then incubated for 60 min with primary and secondary antibodies (2% gelatin in PBS) with PBS washes between and after incubation. Slides were mounted using ProLong Gold antifade reagent (Molecular Probes), and images were taken on a Leica TCS SP5 laser scanning confocal microscope running LAS AF software (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). Golgi dissociation was achieved by treatment with Brefeldin A (10 ?g/ml in DMEM) for 30 min at 37?C.
Sagittal and horizontal tissue sections for fluorescent labeling were pretreated to reduce autofluorescence (20 min in 1 mg/ml sodium borohydride), blocked for 2 h (1% fish skin gelatin, 0.3% Triton X-100 in PBS), exposed to primary antibody (24 h at 4?C), and fluorophore-labeled secondary antibody (4 h) before being mounted as described previously. Confocal images were spectrally separated by LAS AF software using reference spectra obtained from unstained tissue and cells overexpressing green fluorescent protein. Tissue sections for chemical staining were pretreated for 20 min (20% methanol and 5% hydrogen peroxide), blocked, and incubated with primary antibody as described, and then they were incubated with biotinylated anti-rabbit IgG antibodies before visualization using Vectastain ABC and DAB substrate kits (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Slides were treated with Histoclear and mounted with DPX reagent (Sigma-Aldrich) before light microscopy.
PIP4K assays were carried out as described previously (16) with slight adaptation. Substrate lipid (6 ?M PtdIns5P) was dried under vacuum, and micelles were made by sonication in kinase buffer (50 mM Tris pH 7.4, 10 mM MgCl2, 80 mM KCl, and 2 mM EGTA). Recombinant PIP4K was added to the reaction mixture with 10?Ci [?-32P]ATP for 90 min at 30?C. Lipids were extracted and separated by silica-gel thin layer chromatography (16), and results were obtained by autoradiography.
Expression studies using RT-PCR have previously suggested that levels of PIP5K2 transcription are high in different tissues (1, 19). Using a series of isoform-specific PCR primer pairs for PIP5K2A, PIP5K2B, and PIP5K2C, we quantitatively assessed the expressed levels of these transcripts in mRNA isolated from a range of mouse tissues (Fig. 1). Automated quantitative PCR of synthesized cDNA libraries was completed using three biological replicates for each tissue. Pooled data were analyzed by the Livak method (23), normalizing PIP5K2 to the housekeeping gene ?-actin, and values were calculated as the relative fold increase above the lowest observed tissue expression (Fig. 1A). All three isoforms were expressed at higher levels in the brain, with PIP5K2A expression increased in spleen and PIP5K2B in muscle. PIP5K2C was especially high in kidney, as originally reported by Itoh et al. (19). Tissue analysis by in situ hybridization with a range of PIP5K2C probes confirmed that transcription of this isoform was upregulated in brain and kidney, compared with a control tissue, and that the expression was localized to discrete regions of these organs (Fig. 1B). Silver grain labeling of PIP5K2C mRNA in the kidney suggested that expression was confined to segments of the nephron within the cortical and medullary regions and was not present in the kidney vasculature (Fig. 1C).
A polyclonal peptide antibody to the variable region of PIP4K? was raised and purified. Due to the similarity of the sequence of the PIP4K isoforms at the protein level, the specificity of the antibody for PIP4K? was determined (Fig. 2). The anti-PIP4K? antibody has no cross-reactivity with PIP4K? or PIP4K? by Western blot (Fig. 2A) or by immunocytochemistry (Fig. 2B). Purified recombinant PIP4Ks were bound to an NTA sensor chip by 6xHis tag, and surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding of anti-PIP4K? antibody indicated specificity for PIP4K? compared with PIP4K? and PIP4K? (Fig. 2C). This was confirmed by binding biotinylated anti-PIP4K? antibody to an SA sensor chip and detecting specific binding to PIP4K? (data not shown). Direct Western blotting of a bank of tissue lysates confirmed the presence of significant endogenous levels of PIP4K? in brain, kidney, ovary, and testis (Fig. 3A, i). Other tissues had little or no detectable levels of PIP4K?, assuming representative expression based on equivalent loading of total lysate protein. Endogenous PIP4K? was detected as two bands of very similar molecular mass of ?47 kDa, the larger band presumably representing the phosphorylated form of mature PIP4K? (19). Crude kidney fractionation and subsequent Western blotting of protein lysates indicated that PIP4K? was present throughout this organ, but comparatively higher levels were seen in the medulla (Fig. 3B, i). Nonspecific bands were visualized using neutralized antibody as control, and lower molecular mass immunoreactive bands were presumed to be products of proteolytic cleavage (Fig. 3, ii). Interestingly, PIP4K? in heart ran predominantly as a 40-kDa band, suggesting that processing of this isoform may be occurring (Fig. 3A).
Identification of PIP4K? at a cellular level was shown to be specific by the use of peptide-saturated primary antibody controls, which demonstrated an absence of signal due to nonspecific binding of primary or secondary antibodies in tissue immunohistochemistry. Spectral separation was also utilized to remove significant autofluorescence from the kidney tissue in immunofluorescence experiments (Fig. 4A). Analysis of whole kidney sections confirmed that PIP4K? was expressed throughout this organ (data not shown). Detailed examination of representative regions of the kidney at high resolution indicated that the positive signal was seen to be concentrated in the outer medulla (Fig. 4B), confirming the results obtained for transcript expression (Fig. 1B), with much less signal being observed in the cortical labyrinth. This signal was restricted to whole regions of specific tubules, which could be visualized using sequential confocal imaging at 2-?m intervals throughout a 20-?m cryosectioned tissue slice (data not shown). The PIP4K?-expressing tubules were present in both the cortical medullary rays and the inner and outer stripe of the outer medulla but were absent from the tubules of the inner medulla (Fig. 4B). However, it was possible to observe single PIP4K?-positive cells within tubules in the cortex and inner medulla (Fig. 4B).
Costaining sections with selective markers for different nephron regions allowed accurate determination of the tubules and cells that expressed PIP4K? (Fig. 5). The absence of PIP4K? in cortical tubules with a significant brush-border lumen lining (Fig. 5, A and B) or coincident with the water channel AQP1 (Fig. 5C), a marker for the proximal convoluted tubule and thin descending limb of the loop of Henle (29), suggested that expression was restricted to the distal part of the nephron. PIP4K?-positive tubules also expressed Tamm-Horsfall protein in the outer medulla (Fig. 5, D?F), which suggested that PIP4K? is localized to cells in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle (2). The presence of PIP4K?-positive tubules in the cortex and outer medulla (Fig. 5, G and H), but not in the inner medulla (Fig. 5I), and distinct from tubules expressing the collecting duct marker AQP2 (24), confirmed that PIP4K? was mainly expressed in TAL. Interestingly, isolated PIP4K?-positive cells were also localized to the collecting duct but were spatially differentiated from AQP2, which selectively stained principal cells (24). This suggested that PIP4K? was also localized to intercalated cells in cortical and medullary collecting ducts (Fig. 5, J?L).
Tubule sections of medullary TAL showed a distinct concentration of PIP4K? around the lumen (Fig. 6, A?D). Analysis of a pool of cross-sectioned tubules with a diameter of 23?25 ?m gave an average fluorescence profile that indicated a sixfold increase of signal within 3 ?m of the apical membrane of tubule cells, compared with the basolateral membrane (Fig. 6E). Higher magnification of these cells suggested that PIP4K? might be present in a vesicular compartment (Fig. 6, C and D). To further investigate this compartmentalization, PIP4K? expression was studied in kidney-derived cell lines, but because endogenous levels of enzyme were not visible by immunocytochemistry in these cells, overexpressed protein levels were required for colocalization experiments. Cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged PIP4K? were stained with antibodies against different cellular markers (Fig. 7). PIP4K? was not seen to associate with markers for defined vesicular compartments such as peroxisomes (catalase), endosomes (EEA1, mannose 6-phosphate receptor), or lysosomes (lgp110) or with markers for structural components such as tubulin or actin (data not shown). In our experiments, PIP4K? was also not seen to associate with endoplasmic reticulum markers [calreticulin (Fig. 7A) and BiP] in contrast with the suggested endoplasmic reticulum localization seen by Itoh et al. (19). PIP4K? did, however, show a partial colocalization with a number of Golgi apparatus markers (golgin160, TGN38, p115, and p58K), most notably the cis-Golgi marker GM130 (Fig. 7B). Golgi dispersal by treatment of cells with Brefeldin A still retained partial colocalization of GM130 with the PIP4K? signal (Fig. 7C) but not with mannosidase II, a Golgi lumen protein, suggesting that the association was with the matrix component of this organelle (data not shown).
PIP4K, overexpressed in E. coli cells and purified by metal-affinity resin chromatography, was used as a source of enzyme for in vitro kinase assays. PIP4K activity was only observed using the PIP4K? isoform as the recombinant PIP4K? was inactive (Fig. 8A). Using immunoprecipitation experiments with recombinant protein, we were able to show that PIP4K? can associate with PIP4K? strongly enough to be selectively purified with a PIP4K?-specific antibody in vitro (Fig. 8B).
In this study, we investigated the expression, localization and associated biological activity of PIP4K?. We discovered a unique and restricted localization for this PIP4K in kidney tissue and suggest that this has implications for the physiological function of this isoform.
We have shown that the comparative mRNA expression levels of all three isoforms are significant in brain, where they have a different spatial distribution (1). PIP4K? is the most active of the three isoforms in vitro but has a comparably low mRNA expression in most of the tissues that we tested and is the most abundant isoform in the spleen, probably reflecting its role in hematocytes (17, 26). The PIP4K? isoform mRNA is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle cells, consistent with initial observations (6) and providing a link to insulin resistance (22). We have confirmed the original observation that PIP4K? is highly expressed in kidney (19) and also observe high mRNA expression levels in brain, heart, and testis compared with other tissues. Our detection of endogenous PIP4K? protein in tissues is consistent with these transcription levels, also suggesting that PIP4K? is abundant in the ovary and may be processed in heart tissue. The distribution of the PIP4Ks across a range of different tissues, and the observed differences in subcellular localization and intrinsic activity (36, 45), would suggest that specialized functions could be attributed to each and hence to the role of PtdIns(5)P in these locations.
Peptide analysis of the sequence of PIP4K? predicts that this protein would not be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum or plasma membrane due to the absence of a recognized signal peptide, which is consistent with our observation that PIP4K?, when overexpressed in cells, is partially colocalized to the structural component of the Golgi apparatus. Roles for PtdIns3P and PtdIns4P in membrane trafficking are established (10, 32), but the recent study (25) of a Golgi-localized phospholipid-inositol phosphatase with a substrate preference for PtdIns5P presents the intriguing possibility that this phosphoinositide is also present in cellular vesicles. PIP4K? also has a role in actin remodeling during endocytic transport (30), and PtdIns5P levels have been associated with this and with vesicle translocation to the plasma membrane (38). PIP4K? could be recruited to the external surface of a specific microsomal compartment to modify the PtdIns5P signal or to synthesize PtdIns(4,5)P2.
The restricted expression of PIP4K? within the kidney may be significant within the context of the specialized function of different regions of the nephron. Our experiments indicate that PIP4K? is present in cells constituting the TAL and is also restricted to intercalated cells in the collecting duct and appears to have a similar subcellular localization in these cell types as that recently observed for members of the Arf GTPase family (11), which have known roles in membrane trafficking (34). These regions are predominantly concerned with homeostasis by active ion transport and pH regulation and contain a large number of channels and transporters specific to these tasks (for reviews see Refs. 20, 27). Phosphoinositide regulation of both the trafficking to the plasma membrane and the activity of various collecting duct-localized channels has been reported (14, 44), but a specific role for PIP4K? in this process has yet to be established.
PIP4K? has been shown to have PtdIns5P 4-kinase activity when immunoprecipitated from mammalian cells (19), and the recombinant protein, purified from E. coli, is inactive, suggesting that a eukaryotic modification to PIP4K? is required for kinase activation. However, due to the ability of the PIP4Ks to dimerize (4, 16, 35) in vivo, we also cannot rule out the possibility that the observed activity associated to PIP4K? is attributable to PIP4K heterodimers. This raises the possibility that PIP4K? is able to recruit PtdIns5P 4-kinase activity (in the form of PIP4K?) to specific compartments, based on the potential ability to act as a scaffolding protein.
The roles of PtdIns5P, PtdIns(4,5)P2, and hence the PIP4Ks, in kidney function are unknown. We have shown that PIP4K? is the predominant PIP4K in the kidney, and we suggest that its role may be related to its specific localization in this organ.
This study was supported by a Programme Grant (WT063581) from the Wellcome Trust and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.
We thank Dr. Patrick Lynch for practical advice, S?ren Nielsen for helpful suggestions, and Dr. Mihriban Tuna for technical expertise and analysis of biacore experiments.
|1.||Akiba, Y. , Suzuki R, Saito-Saino S, Owada Y, Sakagami H, Watanabe M, Kondo H. Localization of mRNAs for phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases in the mouse brain during development. Brain Res Gene Expr Patterns 1: 123?133, 2002. [pmid: 15018809]|
|2.||Bachmann, S. , Mutig K, Bates J, Welker P, Geist B, Gross V, Luft FC, Alenina N, Bader M, Thiele BJ, Prasadan K, Raffi HS, Kumar S. Renal effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein (uromodulin) deficiency in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288: F559?F567, 2005. [pmid: 15522986]|
|3.||Bunce, MW. , Boronenkov IV, Anderson RA. Coordinated activation of the nuclear ubiquitin ligase Cul3-SPOP by the generation of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate. J Biol Chem 283: 8678?8686, 2008. [pmid: 18218622]|
|4.||Burden, LM. , Rao VD, Murray D, Ghirlando R, Doughman SD, Anderson RA, Hurley JH. The flattened face of type II beta phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase binds acidic phospholipid membranes. Biochemistry 38: 15141?15149. 1999. [pmid: 10563796]|
|5.||Carricaburu, V. , Lamia KA, Lo E, Favereaux L, Payrastre B, Cantley LC, Rameh LE. The phosphatidylinositol (PI)-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II enzyme controls insulin signaling by regulating PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 9867?9872, 2003. [pmid: 12897244]|
|6.||Castellino, AM. , Parker GJ, Boronenkov IV, Anderson RA, Chao MV. A novel interaction between the juxtamembrane region of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. J Biol Chem 272: 5861?5870, 1997. [pmid: 9038203]|
|7.||Ciruela, A. , Hinchliffe KA, Divecha N, Irvine RF. Nuclear targeting of the beta isoform of type II phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase) by its alpha-helix 7. Biochem J 346: 587?591, 2000. [pmid: 10698683]|
|8.||Clarke, JH. , Letcher AJ, D'Santos CS, Halstead JR, Irvine RF, Divecha N. Inositol lipids are regulated during cell cycle progression in the nuclei of murine erythroleukaemia cells. Biochem J 357: 905?910, 2001. [pmid: 11463365]|
|9.||Di Lello, P. , Nguyen BD, Jones TN, Potempa K, Kobor MS, Legault P, Omichinski JG. NMR structure of the amino-terminal domain from the Tfb1 subunit of TFIIH and characterization of its phosphoinositide and VP16 binding sites. Biochemistry 44: 7678?7686, 2005. [pmid: 15909982]|
|10.||Di Paolo, G. , De Camilli P. Phosphoinositides in cell regulation and membrane dynamics. Nature 443: 651?657, 2006. [pmid: 17035995]|
|11.||El-Annan, J. , Brown D, Breton S, Bourgoin S, Ausiello DA, Marshansky V. Differential expression and targeting of endogenous Arf1 and Arf6 small GTPases in kidney epithelial cells in situ. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286: C768?C778, 2004. [pmid: 14684384]|
|12.||Giudici, ML. , Emson PC, Irvine RF. A novel neuronal-specific splice variant of type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase isoform gamma. Biochem J 379: 489?496, 2004. [pmid: 14741049]|
|13.||Gozani, O. , Karuman P, Jones DR, Ivanov D, Cha J, Lugovskoy AA, Baird CL, Zhu H, Field SJ, Lessnick SL, Villasenor J, Mehrotra B, Chen J, Rao VR, Brugge JS, Ferguson CG, Payrastre B, Myszka DG, Cantley LC, Wagner G, Divecha N, Prestwich GD, Yuan J. The PHD finger of the chromatin-associated protein ING2 functions as a nuclear phosphoinositide receptor. Cell 114: 99?111, 2003. [pmid: 12859901]|
|14.||Helms, MN. , Liu L, Liang YY, Al-Khalili O, Vandewalle A, Saxena S, Eaton DC, Ma HP. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate mediates aldosterone stimulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and interacts with gamma-ENaC. J Biol Chem 280: 40885?40891, 2005. [pmid: 16204229]|
|15.||Hinchliffe, KA. , Ciruela A, Letcher AJ, Divecha N, Irvine RF. Regulation of type IIalpha phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase localisation by the protein kinase CK2. Curr Biol 9: 983?986, 1999. [pmid: 10508590]|
|16.||Hinchliffe, KA. , Giudici ML, Letcher AJ, Irvine RF. Type IIalpha phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase associates with the plasma membrane via interaction with type I isoforms. Biochem J 363: 563?570, 2002. [pmid: 11964157]|
|17.||Hinchliffe, KA. , Irvine RF, Divecha N. Regulation of PtdIns4P 5-kinase C by thrombin-stimulated changes in its phosphorylation state in human platelets. Biochem J 329: 115?119, 1998. [pmid: 9405283]|
|18.||Irvine, RF. Nuclear lipid signaling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4: 349?360, 2003. [pmid: 12728269]|
|19.||Itoh, T. , Ijuin T, Takenawa T. A novel phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase (phosphatidylinositol-phosphate kinase IIgamma) is phosphorylated in the endoplasmic reticulum in response to mitogenic signals. J Biol Chem 273: 20292?20299, 1998. [pmid: 9685379]|
|20.||Jentsch, TJ. , Hubner CA, Fuhrmann JC. Ion channels: function unravelled by dysfunction. Nat Cell Biol 6: 1039?1047, 2004. [pmid: 15516997]|
|21.||Jones, DR. , Bultsma Y, Keune WJ, Halstead JR, Elouarrat D, Mohammed S, Heck AJ, D'Santos CS, Divecha N. Nuclear PtdIns5P as a transducer of stress signaling: an in vivo role for PIP4Kbeta. Mol Cell 23: 685?695, 2006. [pmid: 16949365]|
|22.||Lamia, KA. , Peroni OD, Kim YB, Rameh LE, Kahn BB, Cantley LC. Increased insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase beta-/- mice. Mol Cell Biol 24: 5080?5087, 2004. [pmid: 15143198]|
|23.||Livak, KJ. , Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the [-Delta Delta C(T)] Method. Methods 25: 402?408, 2001. [pmid: 11846609]|
|24.||Marples, D. , Knepper MA, Christensen EI, Nielsen S. Redistribution of aquaporin-2 water channels induced by vasopressin in rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 269: C655?C664, 1995.|
|25.||Merlot, S. , Meili R, Pagliarini DJ, Maehama T, Dixon JE, Firtel RA. A PTEN-related 5-phosphatidylinositol phosphatase localized in the Golgi. J Biol Chem 278: 39866?39873, 2003. [pmid: 12878591]|
|26.||Morris, JB. , Hinchliffe KA, Ciruela A, Letcher AJ, Irvine RF. Thrombin stimulation of platelets causes an increase in phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate revealed by mass assay. FEBS Lett 475: 57?60, 2000. [pmid: 10854858]|
|27.||Mullins, LJ. , Bailey MA, Mullins JJ. Hypertension, kidney, and transgenics: a fresh perspective. Physiol Rev 86: 709?746, 2006. [pmid: 16601272]|
|28.||Niebuhr, K. , Giuriato S, Pedron T, Philpott DJ, Gaits F, Sable J, Sheetz MP, Parsot C, Sansonetti PJ, Payrastre B. Conversion of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) into PtdIns(5)P by the S. flexneri effector IpgD reorganizes host cell morphology. EMBO J 21: 5069?5078, 2002. [pmid: 12356723]|
|29.||Nielsen, S. , Smith BL, Christensen EI, Knepper MA, Agre P. CHIP28 water channels are localized in constitutively water-permeable segments of the nephron. J Cell Biol 120: 371?383, 1993. [pmid: 7678419]|
|30.||Pelkmans, L. , Fava E, Grabner H, Hannus M, Habermann B, Krausz E, Zerial M. Genome-wide analysis of human kinases in clathrin- and caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis. Nature 436: 78?86, 2005. [pmid: 15889048]|
|31.||Pendaries, C. , Tronchere H, Arbibe L, Mounier J, Gozani O, Cantley L, Fry MJ, Gaits-Iacovoni F, Sansonetti PJ, Payrastre B. PtdIns5P activates the host cell PI3-kinase/Akt pathway during Shigella flexneri infection. EMBO J 25: 1024?1034, 2006. [pmid: 16482216]|
|32.||Pendaries, C. , Tronchere H, Racaud-Sultan C, Gaits-Iacovoni F, Coronas S, Manenti S, Gratacap MP, Plantavid M, Payrastre B. Emerging roles of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates in cellular signaling and trafficking. Adv Enzyme Regul 45: 201?214, 2005. [pmid: 16023705]|
|33.||Rameh, LE. , Tolias KF, Duckworth BC, Cantley LC. A new pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. Nature 390: 192?196, 1997. [pmid: 9367159]|
|34.||Randazzo, PA. , Yang YC, Rulka C, Kahn RA. Activation of ADP-ribosylation factor by Golgi membranes. Evidence for a brefeldin A- and protease-sensitive activating factor on Golgi membranes. J Biol Chem 268: 9555?9563, 1993. [pmid: 8486645]|
|35.||Rao, VD. , Misra S, Boronenkov IV, Anderson RA, Hurley JH. Structure of type IIbeta phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase: a protein kinase fold flattened for interfacial phosphorylation. Cell 94: 829?839, 1998. [pmid: 9753329]|
|36.||Richardson, JP. , Wang M, Clarke JH, Patel KJ, Irvine RF. Genomic tagging of endogenous type IIbeta phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase in DT40 cells reveals a nuclear localisation. Cell Signal 19: 1309?1314, 2007. [pmid: 17303380]|
|37.||Sbrissa, D. , Ikonomov OC, Deeb R, Shisheva A. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate biosynthesis is linked to PIKfyve and is involved in osmotic response pathway in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 277: 47276?47284, 2002. [pmid: 12270933]|
|38.||Sbrissa, D. , Ikonomov OC, Strakova J, Shisheva A. Role for a novel signaling intermediate, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate, in insulin-regulated F-actin stress fiber breakdown and GLUT4 translocation. Endocrinology 145: 4853?4865, 2004. [pmid: 15284192]|
|39.||Schaletzky, J. , Dove SK, Short B, Lorenzo O, Clague MJ, Barr FA. Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate activation and conserved substrate specificity of the myotubularin phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatases. Curr Biol 13: 504?509, 2003. [pmid: 12646134]|
|40.||Suh, BC. , Hille B. Regulation of ion channels by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15: 370?378, 2005. [pmid: 15922587]|
|41.||Tronchere, H. , Laporte J, Pendaries C, Chaussade C, Liaubet L, Pirola L, Mandel JL, Payrastre B. Production of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate by the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 279: 7304?7312, 2004. [pmid: 14660569]|
|42.||Ungewickell, A. , Hugge C, Kisseleva M, Chang SC, Zou J, Feng Y, Galyov EE, Wilson M, Majerus PW. The identification and characterization of two phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphatases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 18854?18859, 2005. [pmid: 16365287]|
|43.||Walker, DM. , Urbe S, Dove SK, Tenza D, Raposo G, Clague MJ. Characterization of MTMR3 an inositol lipid 3-phosphatase with novel substrate specificity. Curr Biol 11: 1600?1605, 2001. [pmid: 11676921]|
|44.||Weixel, KM. , Edinger RS, Kester L, Guerriero CJ, Wang H, Fang L, Kleyman TR, Welling PA, Weisz OA, Johnson JP. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase reduces cell surface expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cultured collecting duct cells. J Biol Chem 282: 36534?36542, 2007. [pmid: 17940289]|
|45.||Wilcox, A. , Hinchliffe KA. Regulation of extranuclear PtdIns5P production by phosphatidylinositol phosphate 4-kinase 2alpha. FEBS Lett 582: 1391?1394, 2008. [pmid: 18364242]|
|46.||Yin, HL. , Janmey PA. Phosphoinositide regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Annu Rev Physiol 65: 761?789, 2003. [pmid: 12471164]|
|47.||Zou, J. , Marjanovic J, Kisseleva MV, Wilson M, Majerus PW. Type I phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase regulates stress-induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 16834?16839, 2007. [pmid: 17940011]|
Keywords: phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase, collecting duct, Golgi apparatus.
Previous Document: Complement activation by tubular cells is mediated by properdin binding.
Next Document: Interleukin-18 binding protein transgenic mice are protected against ischemic acute kidney injury.