Document Detail

Localization of the motor endplate zone in human skeletal muscles of the lower limb: anatomical guidelines for injection with botulinum toxin.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20964675     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Aim  Botulinum toxin gives a local tone reduction by blocking neurotransmission at the motor endplate (MEP). The importance of using MEP-targeted injections is demonstrated in animal models and in a clinical human study. The goal of this review is to present the available data on the localization of the MEP zone of frequently injected muscles of the lower limb and to compare this with current practice. Method  Current knowledge on the localization of the MEP zone is based on some older histological studies, and for some of the more frequently injected muscles also on more recent anatomical dissection. Results  We find that for some muscles the MEP zone can be more precisely demarcated, and for many other muscles that its location is somewhat different than the currently injected areas in clinical practice. Optimal injection sites are presented for gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, adductor longus, brevis and magnus, and psoas muscles. Interpretation  We propose optimal injection sites in relation to external anatomical landmarks for the frequently injected muscles of the human lower limb to facilitate the efficiency of botulinum toxin injections.
Anja VAN Campenhout; Guy Molenaers
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-10-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental medicine and child neurology     Volume:  53     ISSN:  1469-8749     ISO Abbreviation:  Dev Med Child Neurol     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0006761     Medline TA:  Dev Med Child Neurol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  108-19     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.
Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital Leuven, Belgium  Department of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium.
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