Document Detail

The Local Control of the Pituitary by Activin Signaling and Modulation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21927629     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The pituitary gland plays a prominent role in the control of many physiological processes. This control is achieved through the actions and interactions of hormones and growth factors that are produced and secreted by the endocrine cell types and the non-endocrine constituents that collectively and functionally define this complex organ. The five endocrine cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, thyrotropes and gonadotropes, are defined by their primary product, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH). They are further distinguishable by the presence of cell surface receptors that display high affinity and selectivity for specific hypothalamic hormones and couple to appropriate downstream signaling pathways involved in the control of cell type specific responses, including the release and/or synthesis of pituitary hormones. Central control of the pituitary via the hypothalamus is further fine-tuned by the positive or negative actions of peripheral feedback signals and of a variety of factors that originate from sources within the pituitary. The focus of this review is the latter category of intrinsic factors that exert local control. Special emphasis is given to the TGF-β family of growth factors, in particular activin effects on the gonadotrope population, because a considerable body of evidence supports their contribution to the local modulation of the embryonic and postnatal pituitary as well as pituitary pathogenesis. A number of other substances, including members of the cytokine and FGF families, VEGF, IGF1, PACAP, Ghrelin, adenosine and nitric oxide have also been shown or implicated to function as autocrine/paracrine factors, though, definitive proof remains lacking in some cases. The ever-growing list of putative autocrine/paracrine factors of the pituitary nevertheless has highlighted the complexity of the local network and its impact on pituitary functions.
Louise M Bilezikjian; Wylie W Vale
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Publication Detail:
Journal Detail:
Title:  Open neuroendocrinology journal (Online)     Volume:  4     ISSN:  1876-5289     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-9-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101514554     Medline TA:  Open Neuroendocrinol J     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  90-101     Citation Subset:  -    
Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Grant Support
R01 HD046941-07//NICHD NIH HHS

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