Document Detail

Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15134511     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
alpha-Lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring dithiol compound, has long been known as an essential cofactor for mitochondrial bioenergetic enzymes. Aside from its enzymatic role, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that LA also acts as a powerful micronutrient with diverse pharmacologic and antioxidant properties. Pharmacologically, LA improves glycemic control, polyneuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus, and effectively mitigates toxicities associated with heavy metal poisoning. As an antioxidant, LA directly terminates free radicals, chelates transition metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), increases cytosolic glutathione and vitamin C levels and prevents toxicities associated with their loss. These diverse actions suggest that LA acts by multiple mechanisms both physiologically and pharmacologically, many of which are only now being explored. Herein, we review the known biochemical properties of LA with particular reference to how LA may be an effective agent to ameliorate certain pathophysiologies of many chronic diseases.
A R Smith; S V Shenvi; M Widlansky; J H Suh; T M Hagen
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current medicinal chemistry     Volume:  11     ISSN:  0929-8673     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Med. Chem.     Publication Date:  2004 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-05-11     Completed Date:  2004-11-19     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9440157     Medline TA:  Curr Med Chem     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1135-46     Citation Subset:  IM    
Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics and the Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Antioxidants / pharmacology*,  therapeutic use
Chelation Therapy
Chronic Disease
Coenzymes / pharmacology
Diabetic Neuropathies / drug therapy
Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology
Heavy Metal Poisoning, Nervous System / prevention & control
Metals, Heavy
Oxidative Stress*
Reactive Nitrogen Species / metabolism
Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
Signal Transduction
Thioctic Acid / analogs & derivatives*,  chemistry,  pharmacology*,  therapeutic use
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antioxidants; 0/Coenzymes; 0/Free Radical Scavengers; 0/Metals, Heavy; 0/Reactive Nitrogen Species; 0/Reactive Oxygen Species; 462-20-4/dihydrolipoic acid; 62-46-4/Thioctic Acid

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